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Table 1 RF EMF effects on cognitive performance in studies with a within-subject design.

From: Cognitive Performance Measures in Bioelectromagnetic Research - Critical Evaluation and Recommendations

Study RF EMF Exposure Experimental Design Cognitive Task(s) Results
  Parameters
[Modulation ()]
Side Duration
(min)
Sample Handedness Blinding Cond
≥24 h
No Duration
(min)
Practice
session
When  
Aalto et al.
2006* [1]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power,
SAR10 g = 0.743 W/kg,
SARpeak = 1.51 W/kg
L 51 12 M R DB C 1 - - D n.s.
Cinel et al.
2008 [64]
a) 888 MHz GSM,
SARavg = 1.4 W/kg,
SARpeak = 11.2 W/kg
b) 888 MHz CW,
SARavg = 1.4 W/kg
           
  Experiment 1: L+R ~45 44 M,
116 F
- DB 5 ~40 D n.s.
  Experiment 2: L+R ~40 52 M,
116 F
- DB 3 ~35 D ↓ RT (Stroop Task,
"control" condition)
Croft et al.
2002** [21]
900 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
3-4 mW mean power
(Nokia 5110)
PC 20 16 M,
8 F
R (20)
L (4)
SB C 1 3
(repeated 4
times)
- D n.s.
Curcio et al.
2004 [26]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
0.25 W mean power,
L 45 EG1:
5 M, 5 F
R DB 4 ~22 EG1: D ↑ Speed (Acoustic
Simple Reaction Time
Task)
  SAR = 0.5 W/kg
(Moto Timeport 260)
   EG2:
5 M, 5 F
       EG2: A ↑ Speed to targets
(Acoustic Choice
Reaction Time Task)
Curcio et al.
2008 [20]
902.40 MHz (217 Hz),
0.25 W mean power,
SAR = 0.5 W/kg
(Moto Timeport 260)
R 15
(repeated
3 times)
12 M,
12 F
R DB 2 10
(repeated 3
times)
D n.s.
Eliyahu et al.
2006 [30]
890.2 MHz,
577 μs pulse width,
2 W peak power
(Nokia 5110)
L+R ~120 36 M R SB - 4 ~120 D ↑ RT with left hand (left
side exposure, 2nd
session, Spatial Item
Recognition Task)
Freude et al.
2000** [49]
916.2 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
2.8 W peak power,
SAR1 g = 1.42 W/kg,
SAR10 g = 0.882 W/kg
           
  Experiment 1: L - 20 M R SB C 1 - D n.s.
  Experiment 2: L - 19 M R SB C 3 - D n.s.
Haarala et al.
2003a* [60]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power,
SAR10 g = 0.993 W/kg,
SARpeak = 2 W/kg
(Moto Timeport 260)
L ~45 14 M R DB C 4 - - D n.s.
Haarala et al.
2003b [23]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power,
SAR1 g = 0.88 W/kg,
SARpeak = 1.2 W/kg
           
  Experiment 1: L ~65 16 M,
16 F
R DB 9 ~65 D n.s.
  Experiment 2: L ~65 16 M,
16 F
R DB 9 ~65 D n.s.
Haarala et al.
2004 [24]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power,
SAR10 g = 0.99 W/kg,
SARpeak = 2.07 W/kg
(Nokia 6110)
           
  Experiment 1: L ~65 16 M,
16 F
R DB 4 ~65 D n.s.
  Experiment 2: L ~65 16 M,
16 F
R DB 4 ~65 D n.s.
Haarala et al.
2005 [22]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power,
SAR1 g = 1.44 W/kg,
SAR10 g = 0.99 W/kg,
SARpeak = 2.07 W/kg
L ~50 16 B,
16 G
R DB 8 ~50 D n.s.
Haarala et al.
2007 [48]
a) 902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power,
b) 902 MHz CW,
0.25 W power
L+R ~90 48 M R DB 9 ~45 D n.s.
  a) b) SAR1 g = 1.1 W/kg
SAR10 g = 0.738 W/kg,
SARpeak = 1.18 W/kg
(Nokia 6110)
           
Hamblin et al.
2004** [17]
894.6 MHz (217 Hz),
576 μs pulse width,
2 W peak power,
SAR = 0.87 W/kg
(estimated, modified
Nokia 6110)
R 60 4 M,
8 F
R SB 3 ~30 D ↑ RT (Auditory Oddball
task)
Hamblin et al.
2006** [25]
895 MHz (217 Hz),
576 μs pulse width,
2 W peak power,
SAR10 g = 0.11 W/kg
(modified Nokia 6110)
R+L 30 46 M,
74 F
R (108)
L (12)
DB 3 15 D n.s. (one result not
reported)
Hinrichs
& Heinze 2004**
[58]
1870 MHz (217 Hz),
0.125 W mean power,
1 W peak power
SAR1 g = 1.14 W/kg,
SAR10 g = 0.61 W/kg
L 30 2 M,
10 F
- DB 1 10
(at end of
exposure)
- D n.s.
Jech et al.
2001** [27]
900 MHz (2, 8,
217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
2 W max. power,
SAR10 g = 0.06 W/kg,
(Moto d520)
R 45 9 M,
13 F
R (20)
L (1)
A (1)
DB 1 12.5 - D ↓ RT to targets
Keetley et al.
2006 [31]
0.25 W mean power
(Nokia p6110)
Sham: standby-mode
L 60 58 M,
62 F
- DB 8 ~30 - B, D ↓ Performance variable
7, ↓ retrieval efficiency
(Rey's Audio Visual
Learning Test)
             ↓ Performance (TMT A),
↑ performance (TMT B)
↑ RT (RT Task)
↑ RT (Choice RT Task)
Kleinlogel et al.
2008** [63]
a) 900 MHz (GSM, 2,
8, 217 Hz),
b) 1950 MHz (UMTS),
GSM and UMTS high:
psSAR10 g = 1 W/kg
UMTS low:
psSAR10 g = 0.1 W/kg
L 30 15 M R DB 1 11 D n.s.
Koivisto et al.
2000a [14]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power
L 30 24 M,
24 F
R SB C 4 ~30 D ↓ RT to targets (3-Back
Task)
Koivisto et al.
2000b [15]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power
L 60 24 M,
24 F
R SB 12 ~60 D ↓ RT (Simple RT Task)
↓ RT, ↓ false alarms
(Vigilance Task)
↓ Subtraction time
(Subtraction Task)
Krause et al.
2000a** [51]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power
(Nokia phone)
R 30 8 M, 8 F R SB C 1 ~30 - D n.s.
Krause et al.
2000b** [54]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power,
SAR < 2 W/kg
(manufacturer info)
(Nokia phone)
R 30 12 M,
12 F
R SB C 3 ~30 - D n.s.
Krause et al.
2004** [18]
902 MHz (217 Hz),
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power,
SAR1 g = 0.878 mW/kg,
SAR10 g = 0.648 mW/kg
(Nokia phone)
L 30 12 M,
12 F
R DB C 1 ~30 - D ↑ Error rates (mean
percentage of incorrect
answers; Modified
Sternberg Task)
Krause et al.
2007** [50]
a) 902 MHz (217 Hz)
577 μs pulse width,
0.25 W mean power
b) 902 MHz CW,
0.25 W mean power
a) b) SAR1 g = 1.1 W/kg,
SAR10 g = 0.738 W/kg,
SARpeak = 1.18 W/kg
(Nokia 6110)
           
  Experiment 1: L+R 2 × ~27 36 M R DB 1 ~27 - D n.s.
  Experiment 2: L+R 2 × ~40 36 M R DB 4 ~40 - D n.s.
Preece et al.
1999 [16]
a) 915 MHz (217 Hz),
0.25 W mean power,
b) 915 MHz analogue,
1 W mean power
           
  Experiment 1: L ~25-30 9 M,
9 F
R (14)
L (4)
DB 10 - D ↓ RT (Choice RT Task)
(exposure b))
  Experiment 2: L ~25-30 9 M,
9 F
R (16)
L (3)
DB 10 - D ↓ RT (Choice RT Task)
(exposure b))
Preece et al.
2005 [52]
902 MHz,
a) 0 W power
b) 0.25 W peak power
c) 2 W peak power
SARmax.brain = 0.28 W/kg
(Nokia 3110)
L 30 9 B,
9 G
- DB 16 30-35 D n.s. (after Bonferroni
correction)
Regel et al.
2007a [11]
a) 900 MHz (2, 8, 217,
1736 Hz),
12.5% duty cycle
b) 900 MHz CW
a) b) psSAR10 g = 1 W/kg
L 30 24 M R DB 5 15
(repeated
twice)
D ↓ Speed (2-, 3-Back
Task)
↑ Accuracy (3-Back
Task)
(exposure a))
Regel et al.
2007b [12]
900 MHz (2, 8, 217,
1736 Hz),
12.5% duty cycle
a) psSAR10 g = 0.2 W/kg
b) psSAR10 g = 5 W/kg
L 30 15 M R DB 5 15
(repeated
twice)
D ↓ Speed (1-Back Task,
dose-dependent)
↑ Accuracy (1st session
2-Back at 0.2 W/kg)
Rodina et al.
2005 [19]
450 MHz (7 Hz),
50% duty cycle,
1 W output power,
SAR = 0.0095 W/kg
R 8 × 5-7 4 M,
6 F
L+R SB C 1 3-5
(repeated 8
times)
D ↑ Errors (Visual
Masking Task)
Russo et al.
2006 [53]
a) 888 MHz GSM,
SARavg = 1.4 W/kg,
SARpeak = 11.2 W/kg
b) 888 MHz CW,
SARavg = 1.4 W/kg
Sham
SAR < 0.002 W/kg
a) b)
R+L
35-40 a) b) 84
69 M,
99 F
- DB 4 ~35-40 D n.s.
Schmid et al.
2005 [59]
1970 MHz (5 MHz),
a) High exp:
avSAR1 g = 0.63 W/kg
avSAR10 g = 0.37 W/kg
b) Low exp:
1/10 of High exp
c) Sham
≥50 dB below Low exp
L - 29 M,
29F
- DB C 4 - D n.s.
Terao et al.
2006 [57]
800 MHz (50 Hz),
6.7 ms pulse width,
270 mW mean power,
SAR10 g = 0.054 ± 0.02
W/kg
R 30 9 M,
7 F
R DB 1 6-7 B, A n.s.
Unterlechner et al.
2007 [61]
1970 MHz (5 MHz),
a) High exp:
avSAR1 g = 0.63 W/kg
avSAR10 g = 0.37 W/kg
b) Low exp:
1/10 of High exp
c) Sham
≥50 dB below Low exp
L - 20 M,
20F
R
(87.5%)
L/A
(12,5%)
DB C 4 ~30
(repeated 3
times)
D n.s.
  1. Study: * Experiments on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF); ** Experiments on event related potentials (ERP)
  2. RF EMF Exposure: (av/ps) SAR: (average/peak spatial) specific absorption rate; L: left side exposure; R: right side exposure; L+R: left and right side exposure; PC: exposure over posterior cortex; GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications; UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System; CW: continuous wave (carrier frequency only)
  3. Experimental Design: M: males; F: females; B: boys; G: girls; Handedness: R: right handed, L: left handed, A: ambidextrous; SB: single blind; DB: double blind; Cond: exposure conditions applied ≥24 h apart; C: exposure conditions applied consecutively; EG: experimental group
  4. Cognitive Tasks: No: number of tasks applied; B: task applied before exposure; D: task applied during exposure; A: task applied after exposure; RT: reaction times
  5. Results: ↑: significant increase; ↓: significant decrease; n.s.: no significant effect (compared to sham)
  6. : accomplished; - not accomplished/specified