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Table 2 Prenatal and Early Childhood Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene and Selected1 Risky Behaviors

From: Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

Outcome Exposure
Category/
Percentile
% Yes (n/N) Crude
RR (95% CI)
Simple GEE
RR (95% CI)
Ever smoked regularly vs. Never smoked regularly2 Any 36.9 (303/821) 1.0 (0.9-1.2) 1.0 (0.9-1.2)
  > = 67th 45.0 (122/271) 1.3 (1.1-1.5) 1.2 (1.0-1.5)
  33rd- < 67th 29.1 (81/278) 0.8 (0.7-1.0) 0.8 (0.7-1.0)
  > 0- < 33rd 36.8 (100/272) 1.0 (0.9-1.3) 1.0 (0.9-1.3)
  None 35.2 (191/543) Reference Reference
Smoked 20+ cigarettes a day vs. Never smoked regularly3 Any 12.6 (75/593) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 1.1 (0.8-1.5)
  > = 67th 15.8 (28/177) 1.3 (0.9-2.0) 1.3 (0.9-2.0)
  33rd- < 67th 12.1 (27/224) 1.0 (0.6-1.6) 1.0 (0.7-1.6)
  > 0-< 33rd 10.4 (20/192) 0.9 (0.5-1.4) 0.9 (0.5-1.4)
  None 12.0 (48/400) Reference Reference
First drank at < = 13 years vs. 14+ years4 Any 19.6 (159/811) 1.1 (0.8-1.3) 1.1 (0.8-1.3)
  > 67th 21.9 (59/269) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.2 (0.9-1.6)
  33rd- < 67th 18.4 (51/277) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 1.0 (0.7-1.4)
  > 0-< 33rd 18.5 (49/265) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 1.0 (0.7-1.4)
  None 18.6 (98/528) Reference Reference
Drank > 8 days/mo as teen vs. Never drank as a teen5 Any 26.2 (68/260) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 1.1 (0.8-1.5)
  > 67th 38.8 (33/85) 1.6 (1.1-2.4) 1.6 (1.1-2.3)
  33rd - < 67th 19.8 (18/91) 0.8 (0.4-1.5) 0.8 (0.5-1.3)
  > 0-< 33rd 20.2 (17/84) 0.9 (0.5-1.4) 0.8 (0.5-1.4)
  None 23.7 (42/177) Reference Reference
Drank > = 5/4 drinks/drinking day in past 30 days Any 47.2 (133/282) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 1.1 (0.9-1.3)
vs. Did not drink in past 30 days6 > 67th 57.6 (53/92) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.3 (1.0-1.7)
  33rd - < 67th 41.4 (36/87) 1.0 ((0.7-1.3) 0.9 (0.7-1.3)
  > 0-< 33rd 42.7 (44/103) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 1.0 (0.7-1.3)
  None 43.5 (83/191) Reference Reference
2+ Major drugs as a teen vs. Never used any drugs7,8 Any 35.7 (124/347) 1.4 (1.0-1.8) 1.4 (1.0-1.8)
  > 67th 43.3 (45/104) 1.6 (1.2-2.2) 1.6 (1.2-2.2)
  33rd - < 67th 30.8 (40/130) 1.2 (0.8-1.6) 1.2 (0.8-1.6)
  > 0-< 33rd 34.5 (39/113) 1.3 (0.9-1.8) 1.3 (0.9-1.8)
  None 26.5 (59/223) Reference Reference
Crack/cocaine as a teen vs. Never used any drugs 7,9 Any 29.2 (92/315) 1.6 (1.1-2.2) 1.6 (1.1-2.2)
  > 67th 38.5 (37/96) 2.1 (1.4-3.1) 2.1 (1.4-3.0)
  33rd - < 67th 22.4 (26/116) 1.2 (0.8-1.9) 1.2 (0.8-1.9)
  > 0-< 33rd 28.2 (29/103) 1.5 (1.0-2.3) 1.5 (0.9-2.3)
  None 18.4 (37/201) Reference Reference
Psychedelics/Hallucinogens as a teen vs. Never used any drugs7,9 Any 41.8 (160/383) 1.2 (1.0-.1.5) 1.2 (1.0-1.5)
  > 67th 47.3 (53/112) 1.4 (1.1-1.8) 1.4 (1.1-1.8)
  33rd - < 67th 36.6 (52/142) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 1.1 (0.8-1.4)
  0-< 33rd 42.6 (55/129) 1.2 (1.0-1.6) 1.3 (1.0-1.6)
  None 34.1 (85/249) Reference Reference
Club/Designer Drugs as a teen vs. Never used any drugs7,9 Any 27.8 (86/309) 1.4 (1.0-2.0) 1.5 (1.0-2.1)
  > 67th 39.8 (39/98) 2.1 (1.4-3.0) 2.1 (1.5-3.1)
  33rd - < 67th 16.7 (18/108) 0.9 (0.5-1.4) 0.9 (0.5-1.5)
  > 0-< 33rd 28.2 (29/103) 1.5 (1.0-2.2) 1.5 (0.9-2.3)
  None 19.2 (39/203) Reference Reference
Ritalin without a prescription as teen vs. Never used any drugs7,9 Any 23.6 (69/292) 1.5 (1.0-2.3) 1.5 (1.0-2.2)
  > 67th 33.7 (30/89) 2.2 (1.4-3.4) 2.1 (1.4-3.3)
  33rd - < 67th 16.7 (18/108) 1.1 (0.6-1.8) 1.1 (0.6-1.8)
  > 0-< 33rd 22.1 (21/95) 1.4 (0.9-2.4) 1.3 (0.8-2.2)
  None 15.5 (30/194) Reference Reference
2+ Major drugs as an adult vs. Never used any drugs7,10 Any 44.5 (179/402) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.3 (1.0-1.6)
  > 67th 53.9 (69/128) 1.6 (1.2-2.0) 1.5 (1.2-1.9)
  33rd - < 67th 37.1 (53/143) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 1.1 (0.8-1.4)
  > 0-< 33rd 43.5 (57/131) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.2 (1.0-1.6)
  None 34.7 (87/251) Reference Reference
Crack/cocaine as an adult vs. Never used any drugs 7,11 Any 43.5 (172/395) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.2 (1.0-1.5)
  > 67th 53.2 (67/126) 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 1.4 (1.1-1.8)
  33rd - < 67th 34.3 (47/137) 0.9 (0.7-1.3) 0.9 (0.7-1.2)
  > 0-< 33rd 43.9 (58/132) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.2 (0.9-1.6)
  None 36.2 (93/257) Reference Reference
Psychedelics/Hallucinogens as an adult vs. Never used any drugs7,11 Any 42.1 (162/385) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.2 (1.0-1.5)
  > 67th 48.7 (56/115) 1.4 (1.1-1.8) 1.4 (1.1-1.8)
  33rd - < 67th 33.8 (46/136) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 1.0 (0.7-1.3)
  0-< 33rd 44.8 (60/134) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.3 (1.0-1.7)
  None 34.7 (87/251) Reference Reference
Club/Designer Drugs as an adult vs. Never used any drugs7,11 Any 45.1 (183/406) 1.3 (1.1-1.6) 1.3 (1.1-1.6)
  > 67th 52.0 (64/123) 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 1.5 (1.2-1.9)
  33rd - < 67th 38.8 (57/147) 1.1 (0.9-1.5) 1.1 (0.9-1.5)
  > 0-< 33rd 45.6 (62/136) 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 1.3 (1.0-1.7)
  None 34.4 (86/250) Reference Reference
Ritalin without a prescription as an adult vs. Never used any drugs7,11 Any 28.5 (89/312) 1.4 (1.0-2.0) 1.4 (1.0-2.0)
  > 67th 38.5 (37/96) 1.9 (1.3-2.8) 1.9 (1.3-2.8)
  33rd - < 67th 19.6 (22/112) 1.0 (0.6-1.6) 1.0 (0.6-1.5)
  > 0-< 33rd 28.8 (30/104) 1.4 (1.0-2.2) 1.4 (0.9-2.1)
  None 20.0 (41/205) Reference Reference
Heroin as an adult vs. Never used any drugs7,11 Any 9.0 (22/245) 1.3 (0.7-2.6) 1.3 (0.7-2.6)
  > 67th 11.9 (8/67) 1.8 (0.7-4.1) 1.7 (0.7-4.1)
  33rd - < 67th 5.3 (5/95) 0.8 (0.3-2.1) 0.8 (0.3-2.1)
  > 0-< 33rd 10.8 (9/83) 1.6 (0.7-3.6) 1.6 (0.7-3.6)
  None 6.8 (12/176) Reference Reference
  1. 1 Table includes key findings with more than five subjects in the referent group
  2. 2 Comparison excludes subjects who smoked 100+ cigarettes but never became regular smokers
  3. 3 Comparison excludes subjects who smoked < 20 cigarettes a day
  4. 4 Comparison excludes subjects who never drank as a teen
  5. 5 Comparison excludes subjects who drank < = 8 days/month as a teen
  6. 6 Comparison excludes subjects who drank < 5/4 drinks/drinking day in past 30 days
  7. 7 Referent group is comprised of subjects who never used drugs as a teen or an adult
  8. 8 Comparison excludes subjects who used only marijuana or one major drug as a teen
  9. 9 Comparison excludes subjects who used any other type of drug as a teen
  10. 10 Comparison excludes subjects who used only marijuana or one major drug as an adult
  11. 11 Comparison excludes subjects who used any other type of drug as an adult