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Table 2 Percent change in urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and calcium (Ca) for doubling in urinary Cd concentration

From: Bone resorption and environmental exposure to cadmium in children: a cross - sectional study

Biomarkers of bone resorption Boys (n = 87) Girls (n = 68) Schoolchildren (n = 155)a
  Effect Size* (95% CI) p-value Effect Size* (95% CI) p-value Effect Size* (95% CI) p-value
Deoxypyridinoline, nmol/mmol crtb 71 (33 - 121) < 0.0001 86 (20 - 188) 0.007 72 (37 - 117) < 0.0001
Deoxypyridinoline, nmol/mmol crtc 80 (38 - 133) < 0.0001 84 (18 - 186) 0.008 74 (38 - 121) < 0.0001
Calcium, μmol/mmol crtb 29 (3.0 - 61) 0.02 9.0 (-19 - 47) 0.5 21 (2.0 - 44) 0.02
Calcium, μmol/mmol crtd 39 (9.0 - 77) 0.009 6.0 (-23 - 45) 0.7 24 (3.0 - 50) 0.02
  1. *Regression coefficients (95% confidence [CI]) have been calculated for a doubling in the urinary cadmium concentration and expressed as % increase.
  2. a gender by Cd interaction on urinary levels of DPD and Ca indicated no effect-modification by gender (p for interaction ≥0.3).
  3. b adjusted for gender, age, height, weight and socioeconomic status.
  4. c adjusted for calcium, gender, age, height, weight and socioeconomic status.
  5. d adjusted for DPD, gender, age, height, weight and socioeconomic status.