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Table 1 General characteristics of the population sample by gender.

From: Geographical information system and environmental epidemiology: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the effects of traffic-related air pollution on population respiratory health

  Males (n = 944) Females (n = 1118) p-value*
Age (years) % %  
8-24 20.4 16.4  
25-64 58.8 58.3 p = 0.010
65-97 20.8 25.3  
Smoking habits    
smokers 28.6 17.2  
ex-smokers 40.6 16.8 p < 0.001
non-smokers 30.8 66.0  
Passive smoking exposure    
yes 58.3 48.3 p < 0.001
no 41.7 51.7  
Educational level    
low 42.8 59.6  
medium 30.7 20.0 p < 0.001
high 26.5 20.4  
Work position    
manager/white collar 17.3 13.3  
blue collar/farmer 19.9 8.3 p < 0.001
merchant/craftsman 14.6 8.2  
unemployed 48.2 70.2  
Occupational exposure    
yes 58.1 28.7 p < 0.001
no 41.9 71.3  
Number of hours at home    
≥ 15 h 39.3 71.5 p < 0.001
< 15 h 60.7 28.5  
Time of residence    
< 5 years 11.8 10.4 p = 0.308
≥ 5 years 88.2 89.6  
Type of self-reported environmental exposure    
traffic 79.6 83.9 p = 0.076
other 20.4 16.1  
  1. *p-values from Pearson chi-square test