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Table 3 Prevalence rates of symptoms/diseases by the distance classes in males and females.

From: Geographical information system and environmental epidemiology: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the effects of traffic-related air pollution on population respiratory health

  Males Females
  Distance of residence to main road Distance of residence to main road
  <100 m 100-250 m 250-800 m <100 m 100-250 m 250-800 m
  n = 263 n = 279 n = 402 n = 322 n = 332 n = 464
  % % % % % %
Chronic cough 18.6 17.2 17.9 9.0 11.1 8.8
Chronic phlegm 22.8 17.6 21.1 7.8 7.2 5.8
Persistent wheeze 15.2 # 13.6 9.7 8.7 5.4 6.9
Dyspnea 17.9 16.1 18.4 35.4 ** 28.3 23.9
COPD 14.4 # 9.7 9.2 4.3 2.4 2.6
Hay fever 16.7 21.1 19.2 18.3 16.3 22.0
Eye redness 17.1 17.6 19.2 22.7 23.8 22.5
Asthma 8.7 8.2 5.5 9.6 * 3.9 6.3
Eczema 10.3 7.9 9.2 11.2 12.3 12.9
Attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze 11.4 11.1 9.2 9.3 ** 3.3 5.8
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, # 0.05 < p < 0.1 (borderline) from Pearson chi-square test; comparison between subjects living at different distances from the main road, separately in males and in females