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Table 6 Dust concentrations for select organophosphorous pesticides and pyrethroids from select U.S. farmworker studies (ng/g).a

From: Pesticides in house dust from urban and farmworker households in California: an observational measurement study

Author Population Location Collection method Sampling Dates Pesticides LOD (ng/g)b DF% n Range (ng/g) Median Mean (SD)
Harnly et al. 2009c Farmworkers (CHAMACOS longitudinal birth cohort) Salinas Valley, CA HVS3 2000-2002 Organophosphates:       
         Chlorpyrifos 2 91 177-197 2.9-7850 74 NR
         Diazinon 2 86   4.7-2870 26  
      Pyrethroids:       
         cis-Permethrin 5 98   16-168000 344  
         trans-Permethrin 5 98   146-265000 467  
      Others:       
         Chlorthal-dimethyl 2 98   2.3-271 22  
Bradman et al. 2006d Farmworkers Salinas Valley, CA HVS3 June-September 2002 Organophosphates:       
         Chlorpyrifos 2 95 20 <LOD-1200 49 NR
         Diazinon   100   4-810 21  
         Malathion   20   <LOD-480 NR  
      Pyrethroids:       
         cis-Permethrin   100   13-2900 150  
         trans-Permethrin   100   22-5800 230  
      Others:       
         Chlorthal-dimethy   100   6.5-110 31  
Rothlein et al. 2006 Farmworkers Hood River, OR HVS3 Summer 1999 Chlorpyrifos 10 92 26 <LOD-1200 130 200(240)
      Diazinon 10 77   <LOD-720 310 310(230)
      Malathion 10 81   <LOD-1400 180 380(400)
Curl et al. 2002 Agricultural Workers Yakima Valley, Washington State Nilfisk vacuum cleaner June-September 1999 Chlorpyrifos 150 26 156 <LOD-2560 50 NR
      Diazinon 170 3.8   <LOD-770 10  
      Malathion 160 15   <LOD-1030 40  
Fenske et al. 2002e Ag (at least one family member employed as an orchard applicator (APP) or farmworker (FW)) Central Washington State (major tree fruit production region) HVS3 May-July 1995 Chlorpyrifos LOQ: 13-27(varied batch to batch) APP: 100 FW: 100 APP: 49 FW: 12 APP: 10-2600 FW: 70-560 APP: 370 FW: 250 APP: 550(580) FW: 270(180)
Simcox et al. 1995 Farmers (F), Farmworkers (FW)e Wenatchi area (eastern Washington State) HVS3 Jan-July 1992 Chlorpyrifos LOD: 20 ng/mL LOQ: 17 ng/g F: 96 FW:100 F: 26 FW: 22 F: <LOD-3585 FW: 40-2180 F: 372 FW: 172 F: 506 FW: 338 SD not reported
  1. a. Other studies may have measured additional analytes; only those relevant to the ones measured in our study are included. b. Unless otherwise indicated, limits of detection (LODs) are in ng/g. In some cases a limit of quantitation (LOQ) was reported instead of an LOD. c. Other analytes were also measured, but detection frequencies were <50%. Analytes included: malathion, methidathion, and iprodione. Minimum value reported in the "Range" column is the lowest quantified concentration. d. Other analytes were also measured, but detection frequencies were <50%. Analytes included allethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, sumithrin, and iprodione. Malathion had a detection frequency <50% in this study, but respective information is presented for comparison with other farmworker studies. e. Also included a reference population, but information is not provided in this table. SD = Standard deviation; NR: Value not reported; <LOD: Indicates that value reported was below the limit of detection or not detected.