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Table 3 Associations between heavy metals concentration and mortality in the cohort of residents in the area of Coriano (Italy) by cause of death (ICD-9) and gender.

From: Mortality and morbidity among people living close to incinerators: a cohort study based on dispersion modeling for exposure assessment

  Heavy metals Men Women
Cause (ICD-9)   obs§ RR§§ 95% CI obs§ RR§§ 95% CI
All causes (0-999) I 549 1.00 - - 495 1.00 - -
  II 503 1.14* 1.00 1.29 514 1.19* 1.09 1.30
  III 502 1.05 0.92 1.19 460 1.09* 1.00 1.20
  IV 199 1.01 0.86 1.20 185 1.12* 1.00 1.27
Cardiovascular diseases (390-459) I 215 1.00 - - 195 1.00 - -
  II 183 1.01 0.82 1.24 235 1.39* 1.14 1.70
  III 191 1.06 0.86 1.29 194 1.21 0.98 1.49
  IV 72 0.98 0.75 1.29 78 1.32 1.00 1.72
Ischaemic heart diseases (410-414) I 101 1.00 - - 73 1.00 - -
  II 77 0.83 0.61 1.14 81 1.26 0.90 1.76
  III 77 0.93 0.68 1.26 75 1.24 0.88 1.73
  IV 27 0.79 0.51 1.22 25 1.14 0.72 1.82
Respiratory diseases (460-519 ) I 19 1.00 - - 26 1.00 - -
  II 31 2.07* 1.14 3.77 26 1.18 0.67 2.11
  III 23 1.35 0.72 2.53 19 0.92 0.50 1.70
  IV 7 1.01 0.42 2.45 4 0.53 0.18 1.56
Chronic pulmonary - I 15 1.00 - - 13 1.00 - -
diseases (490496) II 16 1.40 0.67 2.95 12 1.09 0.47 2.52
  III 14 0.99 0.47 2.12 10 0.93 0.40 2.19
  IV 3 0.53 0.15 1.86 1 0.27 0.03 2.06
  1. * p-value < 0.05; † Categories of heavy metals: I (reference) <0.5 ng/m3; II 0.5-1 ng/m3; III 1-2 ng/m3; IV >2 ng/m3; § Observed cases; §§ Rate Ratios vs reference category, adjusted by age and socioeconomic status. Period: 1990-2003.