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Table 4 Associations between heavy metals concentration and hospitalization for specific causes in the cohort of residents in the area of Coriano (Italy) by cause (ICD-9) and gender.

From: Mortality and morbidity among people living close to incinerators: a cohort study based on dispersion modeling for exposure assessment

  Heavy metals Men Women
Cause (ICD-9)   obs§ RR§§ 95% CI obs§ RR§§ 95% CI
Acute Myocardic Infarction (AMI; 410) I 40 1.00 - - 13 1.00 - -
  II 29 0.76 0.44 1.30 15 1.08 0.48 2.41
  III 33 0.84 0.53 1.33 12 0.96 0.44 2.10
  IV 36 0.81 0.51 1.28 16 1.40 0.66 2.98
Chronic heart failure (CHF; 428.0, 428.2, 428.9) I 30 1.00 - - 27 1.00 - -
  II 55 2.03* 1.25 3.29 24 1.04 0.58 1.87
  III 32 1.07 0.65 1.76 28 1.05 0.62 1.78
  IV 26 0.78 0.46 1.33 38 1.48 0.90 2.46
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; 490-496; esc. 493) I 28 1.00 - - 31 1.00 - -
  II 39 1.46 0.85 2.50 24 0.69 0.38 1.27
  III 39 1.41 0.87 2.29 26 0.87 0.51 1.46
  IV 45 1.43 0.89 2.31 18 0.63 0.35 1.14
Acute Respiratory Diseases (460-466; 480-487) I 67 1.00 - - 70 1.00 - -
  II 73 0.98 0.67 1.42 65 0.83 0.56 1.22
  III 80 1.18 0.86 1.64 63 0.91 0.65 1.28
  IV 63 0.89 0.63 1.27 90 1.29 0.94 1.78
Asthma (493) I 6 1.00 - - 10 1.00 - -
  II 5 1.15 0.33 4.09 3 0.50 0.14 1.86
  III 1 0.19 0.02 1.58 5 0.59 0.20 1.74
  IV 6 1.16 0.36 3.71 9 1.01 0.40 2.55
  1. * p-value < 0.05; † Categories of heavy metals: I (reference) <0.5 ng/m3; II 0.5-1 ng/m3; III 1-2 ng/m3 ; IV >2 ng/m3; § Observed cases; §§ Rate Ratios vs reference category, adjusted by age and socioeconomic status; ‡ Analyses for AMI, CHF and COPD was restricted to 35-74 year olds; analysis for asthma was restricted to 0-64 year olds. Period: 1999-2003