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Table 1 Population characteristics and exposure factors.

From: Integrated exposure assessment of sewage workers to genotoxicants: an urinary biomarker approach and oxidative stress evaluation

Characteristics and exposure factors Sewage workers (N = 34) Office workers (N = 30) Total Sample (N = 64) P-value
Age (year) 35.85 ± 7.54 43.30 ± 8.15 39.3 ± 8.6 0.001*
Weight (Kg) 77.8 ± 12.2 76.9 ± 10.6 77.4 ± 11.4 0.75
BMI (Kg/m2 ) 25.5 ± 3.3 25.3 ± 4.2 25.4 ± 3.7 0.82
24 hours urinary volume (ml) 1500 ± 691.5 1750 ± 655.8 1617.2 ± 681.4 0.14
24 hours Urinary creatinine (g/l) 1.3 ± 0.55 0.91 ± 0.43 1.2 ± 0.54 0.003*
Place of residence     
-Urban 8 (23.5) 9 (30) 17 (26.6) 0.47
-Suburbs 22 (64.7) 15 (50) 37 (57.8)  
-Rural 4 (11.8) 6 (20) 10 (15.6)  
Marital status     
-Married 17 (50) 10 (33.3) 27 (42.2) 0.20
-Not married 17 (50) 20 (66.6) 37 (57.8)  
Level of education     
-< 12 years of schooling 2 (5.9) 8 (26.7) 10 (15.6) 0.04*
-> 12 years of schooling 32 (94.1) 22 (73.3) 54 (84.4)  
Smoking     
-Never smokers 29 (85.3) 18 (60) 47 (73.4) 0.03*
-Ex-smokers 5 (14.7) 12 (40) 17 (26.6)  
Exposure to passive smoking     
-Yes 20 (58.8) 17 (56.7) 37 (57.8) 0.87
-No 14 (41.2) 13 (43.3) 27 (42.2)  
Alcohol consumption     
-Regularly 23 (67.6) 10 (33.3) 33 (51.6) 0.01*
-Occasionally 11 (32.4) 20 (66.7) 31 (48.4)  
Use of barbecue last week     
-Yes 3 (8.8) 0 (0) 3 (4.7) 0.20
-No 31 (91.2) 30 (100) 61 (95.3)  
Massive physical activity (last two days)    
-Yes 6 (17.6) 4 (13.3) 10 (15.6) 0.74
-No 28 (82.4) 26 (86.7) 54 (84.4)  
Fruits intake     
-Usually 21 (61.8) 23 (76.7) 44 (68.8) 0.29
-Sometimes 13 (26.5) 7 (16.7) 20 (21.9)  
Vegetables intake     
-Usually 19 (55.9) 26 (86.7) 45 (70.3) 0.01*
-Sometimes 15 (44.1) 4 (13.3) 19 (29.7)  
Intake of vitamins/minerals     
-Yes 6 (17.6) 2 (6.7) 8 (12.5) 0.27
-No 28 (82.4) 28 (93.3) 56 (87.5)  
Usage of protective equipments     
-Yes 11 (32) 0 (0) 11 (17) < 0.001*
-No 23 (68) 30 (100) 53 (83)  
  1. Data are frequencies (percentage) or mean ± SD.
  2. BMI, body mass index (the square of the height over the body weight).
  3. *Statistically significant (P < 0.05).