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Table 4 Association between exposures to workplace toxicants and genotoxicity assays performed on HepG2 cells: multiple linear regression models (N = 64)*.

From: Integrated exposure assessment of sewage workers to genotoxicants: an urinary biomarker approach and oxidative stress evaluation

Independent variable Tail DNA percent MNi/1000 BNed
  Reg. coeff # P-value 95% CI for B Reg. coeff # P-value 95% CI for B
VOCs       
Benzene       
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.03 0.61 -0.08 to 0.14 0.03 0.78 -0.17 to 0.23
   > 39 yrs 0.08 0.03 0.01 to 0.16 0.41 0.00 0.23 to 0.56
Ethylbenzene       
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.02 0.24 -0.01 to 0.05 -0.01 0.80 -0.06 to 0.05
   > 39 yrs 0.02 0.05 0.00 to 0.03 0.10 0.00 0.07 to 0.13
M+P-Xylene       
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.01 0.09 -0.002 to 0.02 0.002 0.9 -0.02 to 0.03
   > 39 yrs 0.01 0.03 0.001 to 0.02 0.05 0.00 0.03 to 0.06
O-Xylene       
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.03 0.12 -0.01 to 0.06 0.01 0.66 -0.05 to 0.07
   > 39 yrs 0.02 0.04 0.001 to 0.03 0.11 0.00 0.07 to 0.14
Decane       
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.01 0.07 -0.001 to 0.02 0.003 0.76 -0.02 to 0.02
   > 39 yrs 0.01 0.03 0.001 to 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.03 to 0.05
Tetrachloroethylene     NT NT NT
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.02 0.31 -0.02 to 0.05    
   > 39 yrs 0.01 0.002 0.004 to 0.02    
Trichloroethylene       
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.003 0.84 -0.03 to 0.04 -0.03 0.27 -0.10 to 0.03
   > 39 yrs 0.02 0.02 0.003 to 0.03 0.06 0.002 0.03 to 0.10
Toluene NT NT NT    
   ≤ 39 yrs     -0.004 0.57 -0.02 to 0.01
   > 39 yrs     0.02 0.00 0.01 to 0.03
1,4 Dichlorobenzene§ 0.01 0.39 -0.01 to 0.03    
   ≤ 39 yrs     -0.03 0.38 -0.10 to 0.04
   > 39 yrs     0.11 0.00 0.06 to 0.16
1, 2,4Trimethylebenzene§ 0.01 0.12 -0.002 to 0.02    
   ≤ 39 yrs     0.01 0.81 -0.03 to 0.04
   > 39 yrs     0.07 0.00 0.05 to 0.09
Undecane§ 0.003 0.23 -0.002 to 0.01    
   ≤ 39 yrs     0.01 0.14 -0.004 to 0.03
   > 39 yrs     0.03 0.00 0.02 to 0.03
Styrene§ 0.03 0.36 -0.03 to 0.09    
   ≤ 39 yrs     -0.07 0.52 -0.29 to 0.15
   > 39 yrs     0.34 0.00 0.23 to 0.44
PAHs       
Chrysene£     0.10 0.50 -0.19 to 0.38
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.07 0.57 -0.18 to 0.32    
   > 39 yrs 0.20 0.04 0.01 to 0.39    
Fluranthene£     0.02 0.68 -0.07 to 0.10
   ≤ 39 yrs -0.002 0.96 -0.07 to 0.07    
   > 39 yrs 0.09 0.02 0.02 to 0.16    
Phenanthrene£     0.01 0.51 -0.02 to 0.05
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.01 0.67 -0.02 to 0.04    
   > 39 yrs 0.04 0.01 0.01 to 0.07    
Pyrene     NT NT NT
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.004 0.92 -0.09 to 0.10    
   > 39 yrs 0.08 0.03 0.01 to 0.15    
Anthracene     NT NT NT
   ≤ 39 yrs 0.02 0.88 -0.24 to 0.27    
   > 39 yrs 0.25 0.01 0.06 to 0.44    
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene     NT NT NT
   ≤ 39 yrs -0.01 0.96 -0.33 to 0.31    
   > 39 yrs 0.20 0.04 0.01 to 0.39    
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene     NT NT NT
   ≤ 39 yrs -0.01 0.98 -0.49 to 0.48    
   > 39 yrs 0.34 0.03 0.03 to 0.65    
Benzo(j)fluoranthene     NT NT NT
   ≤ 39 yrs -0.01 0.98 -0.37 to 0.36    
   > 39 yrs 0.26 0.04 0.02 to 0.51    
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene§ 0.85 0.02 0.13 to 10.57 NT NT NT
  1. * Variables in the final models. (i) MNi/1000 BNed models: toxicants (one each time), age (≤ 39/>39 years), toxicant-age interaction, alcohol consumption (regularly/occasionally), vegetable intake (usually/sometimes).
  2. (ii) tail DNA percent models: same as MNi/1000 BNed plus level of education (>12/≤12 years).
  3. § or £ Not significant interaction between toxicant and age for comet§ or micronuclei£ assays. Toxicant effect adjusted for the other models variables.
  4. NT: Not Tested because P > 0.1 in univariate association between toxicant and biomarker (table 2).
  5. Notes: Variables entered in the models are those with P < 0.1 in univariate analysis. Enter method was used.
  6. Reg. coeff #, regression coefficient number
  7. CI, confidence interval
  8. yrs, years
  9. MNi, micronuclei
  10. BNed; binucleated cells.