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Table 1 Selected Diesel Exhaust - Related Occupational Studies on Lung Cancer Incidence/Mortality.

From: Risk assessment of diesel exhaust and lung cancer: combining human and animal studies after adjustment for biases in epidemiological studies

Study Effect Measure 95% C.I. Main Source of Systematic Error
Garshick et al. [18](retrospective cohort) RR = 1.40a 1.30 - 1.51 Confounding by smoking
Wellmann et al. [19](retrospective cohort) SMR = 2.18 a 1.61 - 2.87 Confounding by smoking
Gustavsson et al. (20] (case-referant) RR = 1.63b 1.14 - 2.33 Misclassification bias
  1. a comparing occupationally exposed versus non-exposed
  2. b comparing the highest diesel related NO2 category versus unexposed