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Table 6 Estimated RR s from rat exposure studies using BMDLs as the points of departure for linear extrapolation.

From: Risk assessment of diesel exhaust and lung cancer: combining human and animal studies after adjustment for biases in epidemiological studies

Study BMDa(μg/m3) BMDLb(μg/m3) c 95% C.I.
Nikula et al. [31] 1289.730 936.256 1.426 0.95-1.90
Brightwell et al. [29] 963.542 716.572 1.246 0.83-1.67
Mauderly et al. [32] 1376.890 1183.880 1.576 0.84-2.31
  1. a BMD: benchmark dose (dose with a risk of 10%)
  2. b BMDL: 95% lower confidence limit of BMD
  3. c using the US 1997 24-hour fine particle standard of 65 μg/m3