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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratio (OR)a for emergency department visits for respiratory causes among all patients, by season

From: Urban air pollution and emergency room admissions for respiratory symptoms: a case-crossover study in Palermo, Italy

  All seasons Season
   Cold (October to March) Warm (April to September)
Pollutants OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
PM 10 1.022 1.013-1.031 1.018 1.008-1.029 1.039 1.020-1.058
SO 2 1.044 1.003-1.086 0.983 0.908-1.064 1.068 1.014-1.126
CO b 1.023 1.001-1.047 0.991 0.965-1.017 1.128 1.074-1.184
NO 2 1.015 1.004-1.026 1.000 0.984-1.015 1.043 1.021-1.065
  1. a Odds ratios were calculated in relation to an increase of 10 μg/m3 of selected air pollutants and were adjusted for meteo-climatic parameters, and influenza epidemic peaks (see Methods - Statistical analysis).
  2. b For an increase of 1 mg/m3.