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Table 7 Estimated health effects of exposures to landfills in the three countries as annual cases of congenital malformations and newborns of low birth weight.

From: Health impact assessment of waste management facilities in three European countries

  Italy Slovakia England
  Expected cases Additional cases 99% CI Expected cases Additional cases 99% CI Expected cases Additional cases 99% CI
All congenital anomalies 73 1.47 0.73 - 2.20 77 1.54 0.77 - 2.31 83 2.7 1.35 - 4.05
Neural tube defects 6 0.37 0.06 - 0.74 2 0.11 0.02 - 0.23 5 0.31 0.05 - 0.62
Hypospadias and epispadias 10 0.67 0.38 - 1.06 7 0.48 0.27 - 0.75 16 1.13 0.65 - 1.78
Abdominal wall defects 2 0.08 -0.09 - 0.24 12 0.60 -0.72 - 1.92 5 0.27 -0.32 - 0.86
Gastroschisis and exomphalos 2 0.27 0.05 - 0.51 12 2.16 0.36 - 4.09 5 0.85 0.14 - 1.61
Low birth weight 706 42.4 35.3-42.4 212 12.7 10.62 - 12.74 975 58.5 48.7 - 58.5