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Table 5 Proportional change in personal endotoxin exposures related to predictors (household and subject characteristics) in 45 children with asthma

From: Personal endotoxin exposure in a panel study of school children with asthma

Household and subject characteristics N or Mean (min-max) Adjusted coefficient (95% CI)1,2
Number of dogs 1.31 (0 - 4) 1.96 (1.43, 2.68)#
Residence of dogs   
   No dogs 14 1.00 (referent)
   Often Indoors 8 1.20 (0.38, 3.78)
   Occas. Indoors 12 4.30 (1.50, 12.27)#
   Outdoor Only 11 2.41 (0.77, 7.55)
Number of cats 0.69 (0 - 5) 1.61 (1.19, 2.18)#
Residence of cats   
   No cats 31 1.00 (referent)
   Often Indoors 10 2.99 (1.14, 7.89)**
   Occas. Indoors 2 3.56 (0.53, 23.79)
   Outdoor Only 2 2.51 (0.36, 17.57)
Number of residents 4.75 (2 - 7) 1.27 (0.97, 1.65)*
Carpeting   
   < 50% 19 1.00 (referent)
   ≥ 50% 26 0.55 (0.22, 1.37)
Age of carpeting   
   < median years 21 1.00 (referent)
   ≥ median years 18 1.95 (0.78, 4.86)
Frequency of carpet cleaning   
   Never/don't know 11 1.00 (referent)
   Every 3 years or more 3 0.31 (0.05, 1.90)
   More than every 3 years 28 0.89 (0.31, 2.53)
Remove shoes in house   
   No 41 1.00 (referent)
   Yes, frequent exceptions 2 0.56 (0.08, 4.15)
   Yes, few or no exceptions 2 0.61 (0.08, 4.70)
Cockroaches in the home   
   No 29 1.00 (referent)
   Yes 16 1.54 (0.66, 3.58)
Rodents or droppings   
   No 39 1.00 (referent)
   Yes 6 0.48 (0.15, 1.55)
Flooding damage   
   No 28 1.00 (referent)
   Yes 17 4.48 (1.96, 10.26)#
Mold/mildew on surfaces   
   No 12 1.00 (referent)
   Yes 33 1.34 (0.51, 3.54)
Livestock   
   No 43 1.00 (referent)
   Yes 2 0.45 (0.06, 3.44)
Central air-conditioning   
   No 7 1.00 (referent)
   Yes 38 0.55 (0.17, 1.81)
Sex   
   Female 15 1.00 (referent)
   Male 30 0.43 (0.19, 0.99)**
Age   
   13-18 years 31 1.00 (referent)
   9-12 years 14 1.18 (0.48, 2.90)
Race   
   White non-Hispanic 14 1.00 (referent)
   Hispanic 23 0.39 (0.15, 1.05)*
   Black 8 0.77 (0.22, 2.68)
Mothers education   
   More than high school 31 1.00 (referent)
   High school or less 14 1.23 (0.51, 2.97)
Family income   
   >50,000 21 1.00 (referent)
   30,000-50,000 11 1.96 (0.63, 6.11)
   Up to $30,000 13 0.61 (0.24, 1.58)
  1. * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, # p < 0.01
  2. 1Because the dependent variable (personal or indoor endotoxin) was log transformed, we exponentiated the regression coefficient of the predictor, thus yielding the proportional change in endotoxin exposure and 95% confidence interval (CI).
  3. 2Adjusted for personal temperature, personal relative humidity and study region.