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Table 1 Univariate Relationships of Participant Characteristics with Blood Pressure (N = 21,894)

From: The association of remotely-sensed outdoor temperature with blood pressure levels in REGARDS: a cross-sectional study of a large, national cohort of African-American and white participants

Characteristics Distribution Missing SBP (mmHg) DBP (mmHg)
  N (%) N Parameter estimate (95% CI) Parameter estimate (95% CI)
Outcome Variables     
   SBP, mmHg (mean, SD) 128.2 (16.7) 0 n/a n/a
   DBP, mmHg (mean, SD) 76.8 (9.6) 0 n/a n/a
Meteorological and Seasonal Variables     
   Same day maximum temp, lower by 20°F (mean, SD) 70.6 (16.8) 0 1.5 (1.2, 2.0) 0.7 (0.5, 0.9)
   Same day minimum temp, lower by 20°F (mean, SD) 55.3 (16.8) 0 1.1 (0.8, 1.4) 0.4 (0.3, 0.6)
   Maximum temp variability, by SD increase (mean, SD) 2.8 (1.4) 0 0.5 (0.3, 0.6) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
   Minimum temp variability, by SD increase (mean, SD) 3.0 (1.4) 0 0.6 (0.4, 0.7) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
   Season     
Summer 6184 (28%)   Reference Reference
Fall 6041 (28%) 0 1.4 (0.8, 2.0) 0.7 (0.3, 1.0)
Winter 4853 (22%)   2.3 (1.7, 2.9) 1.2 (0.8, 1.5)
Spring 4816 (22%)   2.0 (1.3, 2.6) 0.9 (0.5, 1.3)
Demographics     
   Age, by 10 years (mean, SD) 65.7 (9.3) 0 2.9 (2.6, 3.1) -1.3 (-1.1, -1.4)
   Male 9905 (45%) 3 2.2 (1.7, 2.6) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4)
   Black Race 9527 (44%) 1 5.4 (4.9, 5.8) 3.2 (3.0, 3.5)
   Region     
Stroke Buckle 3768 (17%)   Reference Reference
Stroke Belt 7773 (36%) 0 0.8 (0.1, 1.4) -0.1 (-0.5, 0.3)
Non-Belt 10325 (47%)   1.5 (0.9, 2.1) 0.5 (0.2, 0.9)
   Population Density     
Urban 17678 (81%)   1.7 (1.0, 2.5) 0.5 (0.1, 1.0)
Mixed 2179 (10%) 0 0.5 (-0.5, 1.5) 0.2 (-0.4, 0.7)
Rural 2037 (9%)   Reference Reference
SES Factors     
   Education, 8th grade or less 2849 (13%) 23 5.5 (4.9, 6.2) 0.9 (0.5, 1.2)
   Income     
< $20 k 4122 (19%)   8.0 (7.2, 8.7) 1.2 (0.7, 1.6)
$20 k-$35 k 5367 (25%) 2652 4.4 (3.7, 5.0) 0.8 (0.4, 1.1)
$35 k-$75 k 6487 (30%)   1.7 (1.0, 2.3) 0.4 (0.0, 0.8)
>= $75 k 3266 (15%)   Reference Reference
   refused 2652 (12%)   2.7 (1.9, 3.5) 1.1 (0.7, 1.6)
   Community poverty %, by 10% increase (mean, SD) 17.8 (12.5) 0 1.6 (1.4, 1.7) 0.8 (0.6, 0.8)
Health Behaviors     
   Smoking Status     
Never 9670 (44%)   Reference Reference
Current 3212 (15%) 88 1.2 (0.5, 1.8) 0.6 (0.3, 1.0)
Past 8924 (41%)   1.1 (0.6, 1.6) -0.2 (-0.5, 0.1)
   Alcohol use (never) 6486 (30%) 0 1.2 (0.8, 1.7) -0.3 (-0.6, 0.0)
Co-morbidities     
   BMI   279   
Underweight/Normal 5402 (25%)   Reference Reference
Overweight 7972 (37%)   3.4 (2.8, 3.9) 2.3 (2.0, 2.6)
Obese 8241 (38%)   6.9 (6.3, 7.4) 4.8 (4.5, 5.1)
   Hyperlipidemia 19254 (88%) 16 0.1 (-0.6, 0.8) 1.5 (1.1, 1.9)
   Diabetes 4672 (22%) 747 5.4 (4.8, 5.9) 0.1 (-0.2, 0.5)
  1. SBP = systolic blood pressure; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; SD = standard deviation; high temp = high temperatures; low temp = low temperatures; F = Fahrenheit
  2. Parameter estimates in bold indicate values that are significant at α = 0.05.