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Table 4 Psychological and physical risk factors determining complaints of each region (neck, shoulder/arms, forearm/hand) and the severity of complaints

From: Work related complaints of neck, shoulder and arm among computer office workers: a cross-sectional evaluation of prevalence and risk factors in a developing country

Risk factors Odds ratio (95% CI)
  Neck Shoulders & arms Forearm & hands Severe complaints
Age 0.99 (0.97-1.01) 0.97 (0.96-1.00) 0.96 (0.94-0.98) 0.96 (0.93-0.98)
Female gender 1.26 (1.03-1.39)* 1.59 (1.31-1.88)* 1.33 (1.11-1.56)* 1.17 (1.10-1.24)*
Duration of occupation 1.03 (1.01-1.05) 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 1.06 (1.03-1.09) 0.98 (0.95-1.02)
Daily computer usage 1.13 (0.99-1.27)* 1.98 (1.46-2.51)* 1.18 (1.06-1.30)* 1.92 (1.88-1.97)*
Work area 0.94 (0.88-0.99) 0.93 (0.88-0.98) 0.96 (0.91-1.01) 0.82 (0.74-0.89)
Computer positioning 1.15 (1.08-1.23)* 1.01 (0.95-1.07) 0.97 (0.92-1.03) 1.08 (0.99-1.18)
Incorrect body posture 1.36 (1.13-1.48)* 1.23 (1.11-1.36)* 1.15 (1.03-1.26)* 1.59 (1.55-1.63)*
Bad work-habits 1.18 (1.13-1.23)* 1.05 (1.02-1.08) 1.10 (1.06-1.14)* 1.11 (1.06-1.15)*
Skills and abilities 1.01 (0.98-1.04) 0.99 (0.96-1.02) 0.99 (0.97-1.03) 1.09 (1.04-1.14)
Decision making 0.98 (0.95-1.01) 1.13 (1.08-1.18)* 1.17 (1.14-1.20)* 1.16 (1.12-1.21)*
Time management 0.95 (0.92-0.98) 0.92 (0.89-0.95) 0.97 (0.95-1.00) 1.05 (1.00-1.10)
Work overload 1.11 (1.07-1.15)* 1.18 (1.14-1.22)* 1.29 (1.16-1.41)* 1.56 (1.51-1.60)*
Work breaks 0.90 (0.86-0.94) 1.03 (0.98-1.08) 1.04 (0.99-1.09) 0.92 (0.86-0.98)
Variation in work 1.01 (0.97-1.05) 1.09 (1.05-1.13) 1.01 (0.97-1.04) 1.17 (1.10-1.24)
Work environment 1.02 (0.97-1.08) 0.87 (0.82-0.92) 0.99 (0.94-1.05) 0.88 (0.81-0.96)
Social support 1.14 (1.09-1.19)* 1.17 (1.12-1.22)* 1.09 (1.06-1.12)* 1.23 (1.15-1.33)*
Ergonomic knowledge 1.08 (1.06-1.10)* 1.01 (0.96-1.06) 1.10 (1.05-1.15)* 1.03(0.97-1.09)
  1. * p < 0.05