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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to exposure to road traffic noise above and below 55 dB(A) (Lden) at enrolment of 44,083 cohort participants

From: Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and associations with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension: a cohort study

  Mean Lden levels the year preceding enrolment
Characteristic, at enrolment < 55 dB(A) ≥ 55 dB(A)
  % (N) Median
(5-95 percentiles)
% (N) Median
(5-95 percentiles)
All 100 (18,522)   100 (25,561)  
Age (years)   55.7 (50.7-64.0)   56.1 (50.7-64.2)
Gender     
   Women 51 (9,372)   53 (13,556)  
   Men 49 (9,150)   47 (12,005)  
Years of education     
   ≤ 7 30 (5,609)   34 (8,772)  
   8-10 46 (8,557)   46 (11,682)  
   ≥ 11 24 (4,356)   20 (5,107)  
Municipality SESa     
   Low 9 (1,638)   18 (4,630)  
   Medium 70 (13,028)   61 (15,544)  
   High 21 (3,856)   21 (5,387)  
Area     
   Copenhagen city 16 (3,013)   33 (8,473)  
   Aarhus city 44 (8,091)   19 (4,937)  
Copenhagen/Aarhus
surroundings
40 (7,418)   48 (12,151)  
BMI (kg/m2)   25.2 (20.4-32.4)   25.4 (20.3-33.0)
Smoking     
   Never 38 (7,039)   34 (8,648)  
   Former 29 (5,284)   27 (6,865)  
   Current 33 (6,199)   40 (10,048)  
Drinking alcohol     
   No 2 (347)   2 (607)  
   Yes 98 (18,175)   98 (24,954)  
Among active drinkers (g/day)   13.4 (1.31-61.2)   13.4 (1.03-66.9)
Physical activity     
   No 42 (7,789)   47 (11,990)  
   Yes 58 (10,733)   53 (13,571)  
   Among active (h/week)   2.0 (0.5-7.0)   2.0 (0.5-7.0)
Railway noise ≥ 60 dB 13 (2,364)   19 (4,885)  
Lden, 1 yearb (dB(A))   51.7 (46.3-54.7)   61.1 (55.5-71.7)
NOx, 1-yearb (μg/m3)   17.5 (13.8-25.3)   25.3 (15.9-112)
  1. a Socioeconomic status of municipalities based on municipality information on education, work market affiliation and income
  2. b Time-weighted average level at residences for one years preceding enrolment