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Table 2 Associations between road traffic noise and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure at enrolment

From: Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and associations with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension: a cohort study

   Differences in systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)
(95% CI)
Differences in diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)
(95% CI)
Road traffic noise (Lden) N Adjusted by age and gender Adjusted by age, gender, calendar-year, area, lifestyle factorsa , air pollutionb, season, temperature and humidity P Adjusted by age, gender, calendar-year, area, lifestyle factorsa , air pollutionb, season, temperature and humidity P
1-year mean (dB(A))c       
   < 56.4 22,041 0 (ref) 0 (ref)   0 (ref)  
   56.4-67.3 17,635 0.12 (-0.27;0.50) 0.17 (-0.23; 0.58) 0.41 -0.00 (-0.22; 0.21) 0.98
   > 67.3 4,407 0.23 (-0.39; 0.85) 0.79 (-0.04; 1.62) 0.06 0.11 (-0.33; 0.55) 0.62
Linear trend per 10 dB(A) 44,083 0.09 (-0.18; 0.37) 0.26 (-0.11; 0.63) 0.17 0.07 (-0.13; 0.27) 0.50
5-year mean (dB(A))c       
   < 56.3 22,041 0 (ref) 0 (ref)   0 (ref)  
   56.3-67.3 17,635 0.04 (-0.35; 0.42) 0.08 (-0.33; 0.48) 0.71 -0.02 (-0.23; 0.20) 0.88
   >67.3 4,407 0.40 (-0.23; 1.02) 0.85 (0.02; 1.67) 0.04 0.12 (-0.32; 0.55) 0.60
Linear trend per 10 dB(A) 44,083 0.07 (-0.21; 0.35) 0.14 (-0.24; 0.53) 0.47 0.03 (-0.18; 0.23) 0.78
  1. All analyses include centre of enrolment as random factor
  2. a Lifestyle factors: smoking, BMI, length of school attendance, municipality SES, alcohol intake and physical activity.
  3. b Time-weighted average concentration of NOx at residences 1 and 5 years preceding enrolment
  4. c The cut-off points between exposure groups were the 50th and 90th percentiles for the participants at the time of enrolment into the cohort