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Table 4 Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 10 dB(A) increase in road traffic noise and for railway noise above 60 dB in relation to self-reported hypertension

From: Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and associations with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension: a cohort study

   Road traffic noise, 1-y mean Road traffic noise, 5-y mean Railway noise ≥ 60 dB, enrolment
   IRR (95% CI)   IRR (95% CI)   IRR (95% CI)  
  N cases Adjusted by age and gender Adjusted by age, gender, calendar-year, area, lifestyle factorsa, air pollutionb and railway noise P c Adjusted by age, gender, calendar-year, area, lifestyle factorsa, air pollutionb and railway noise P c Adjusted by age, gender, calendar-year, area, lifestyle factorsa, air pollutionb and road traffic noise P c
All 3145 1.02 (0.97-1.08) 1.02 (0.95-1.10)   0.97 (0.90-1.05)   1.08 (0.98-1.19)  
Noise (Lden, dB(A))         
   < 55 1237 1.09 (0.87-1.37) 1.10 (0.87-1.38) 0.36 1.03 (0.81-1.30) 0.31 -  
   55-65 1410 0.94 (0.78-1.13) 1.04 (0.77-1.12)   0.90 (0.74-1.09)   -  
   > 65 498 1.16 (0.88-1.53) 1.15 (0.86-1.54)   1.17 (0.86-1.58)   -  
Gender         
   Women 1668 1.02 (0.95-1.10) 1.02 (0.94-1.12) 0.89 0.97 (0.89-1.07) 0.99 1.10 (0.97-1.25) 0.70
   Men 1477 1.02 (0.95-1.10) 1.02 (0.92-1.12)   0.97 (0.88-1.07)   1.06 (0.92-1.22)  
Age (years)         
   ≤ 60 1571 1.04 (0.96-1.11) 1.03 (0.94-1.13) 0.58 0.98 (0.89-1.08) 0.85 1.07 (0.94-1.22) 0.86
   > 60 1574 1.01 (0.93-1.08) 1.00 (0.92-1.10)   0.97 (0.88-1.06)   1.09 (0.95-1.24)  
Years of education         
   ≤ 7 1060 1.06 (0.97-1.16) 1.06 (0.96-1.18) 0.51 1.02 (0.91-1.13) 0.43 1.13 (0.97-1.32) 0.62
   8-10 1483 0.99 (0.92-1.08) 1.01 (0.92-1.10)   0.96 (0.87-1.06)   1.08 (0.95-1.24)  
   ≥ 11 602 0.98 (0.86-1.10) 0.98 (0.86-1.12)   0.92 (0.80-1.06)   0.99 (0.78-1.24)  
Municipality SESa         
   Low 461 0.95 (0.83-1.09) 0.98 (0.84-1.14) 0.66 0.93 (0.79-1.09) 0.78 1.08 (0.88-1.32) 0.95
   Medium 2039 1.04 (0.97-1.11) 1.03 (0.95-1.13)   0.98 (0.90-1.07)   1.07 (0.94-1.21)  
   High 645 1.01 (0.89-1.14) 0.99 (0.87-1.13)   0.96 (0.84-1.10)   1.11 (0.91-1.36)  
Prior diagnosis of cardiovascular diseaseb       
   Yes 51 1.22 (0.82-1.82) 1.22 (0.81-1.84) 0.37 1.11 (0.73-1.69) 0.52 0.74 (0.35-1.58) 0.33
   No 3094 1.02 (0.97-1.07) 1.02 (0.94-1.10)   0.97 (0.90-1.05)   1.09 (0.99-1.20)  
  1. a Lifestyle factors at enrolment: smoking, BMI, length of school attendance, municipality SES, alcohol intake and physical activity.
  2. b Time-weighted average concentration of NOx at residences 1 and 5 years preceding enrolment
  3. c P for interaction