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Table 4 Perceived changes in heat, cold and rainfall compare to five to ten years ago (n = 450)

From: Households' perception of climate change and human health risks: A community perspective

Perceived changes in Climate Variability Heat Cold Rainfall
  Yes No Yes No Yes No
What were the changes respondents perceived due to heat over time? % %     
Has the intensity of heat increased during summer? 95.3 4.7     
Are heat waves more frequent now during summer/drought? 77.3 22.7     
Are there more frequent and strong storms during summer/drought? 40.3 59.7     
Is there enough rainfall during summer/drought? 33.8 76.2     
Do hailstorms occur more frequently? 16.0 84.0     
Do the canals and lakes carry enough water during summer/drought? 2.0 98.0     
Do the rivers carry enough water during summer/drought? 7.3 92.7     
Can you cultivate your crops regularly using rain water during summer? 22.9 77.1     
Are you restricted from being outside of your work due to extreme heat? 18.4 81.6     
Can you fetch drinking water from tube-well? 58.9 37.6     
Does the deep tube-well reach the water table? 47.3 52.7     
Does the deep tube-well maintain the same water pressure throughout summer? 37.3 62.7     
Has any deep tube-well run out of water during summer/drought? 46.4 28.9     
What were the changes they perceived due to winter/cold?    % %   
Is the severity of cold more irregular than in the past?    72.4 27.6   
Does winter arrive on time?    17.1 82.9   
Does the winter season remain for a longer period of time?    14.0 86.0   
Is the frequency of rain the same as previously?    25.3 74.7   
Do cold waves occur with the same frequency as in the past?    83.5 16.5   
Has the intensity of fog decreased compared to previous days?    73.6 26.4   
Is there the presence of dew drops along with fog?    85.1 14.9   
Does the severity of cold linger for a shorter period of time?    96.7 3.3   
Does the dense fog conceal sunlight for more than a day?    61.1 38.9   
Is the timing of the sunrise delayed?    88.0 12.0   
What were the changes they perceived due to rainfall?      % %
Is the occurrence of rainfall the same as previously?      1.3 98.7
Do rainfall events occur for 5-7 days during the rainy season?      1.3 98.7
Does rainfall occur regularly during rainy season?      1.1 98.9
Are the ponds full during rainy season?      6.7 92.9
Does flooding occur during rainy season?      3.6 96.2
Can you cultivate your crops using rain water?      3.6 76.7
Does rainfall occur on time?      0.9 99.1
Does rainfall occur irregularly?      67.1 32.9
Has the frequency of lightning increased?      4.8 81.4
Percentage of "don't know" not presented in the table       
  1. [Respondents were asked the question: "What were the changes you perceived due to heat, cold and rainfall over time"?]