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Table 3 Odds Ratio (95% CI) for CVD associated with household solid fuel use

From: In-home solid fuel use and cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional analysis of the Shanghai Putuo study

  Hypertension   CHD   Stroke   Diabetes  
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Solid fuel use         
   Case/non-case 2,545/10,893   546/12,892   313/13,125   652/12,786  
   Ever 1.91 (1.58 to 2.30) 1.70 (1.40 to 2.07) 2.56 (1.53 to 4.28) 2.58 (1.53 to 4.32) 1.72 (0.87 to 3.40) 1.60 (0.80 to 3.21) 2.72 (1.75 to 4.23) 2.48 (1.59 to 3.86)
   Never Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Duration (yr, tertile)         
   Case/non-case 2,536/10,837   544/12,829   312/13,061   650/12,723  
   > 25 1.98 (1.67 to 2.35) 1.73 (1.45 to 2.06) 1.48 (1.01 to 2.16) 1.46 (0.99 to 2.15) 2.02 (1.13 to 3.61) 1.87 (1.03 to 3.38) 3.52 (2.35 to 5.28) 3.18 (2.11 to 4.78)
   10-25 1.69 (1.43 to 2.00) 1.51 (1.27 to 1.79) 1.96 (1.34 to 2.85) 1.93 (1.32 to 2.82) 1.51 (0.81 to 2.80) 1.45 (0.78 to 2.71) 3.05 (2.04 to 4.56) 2.83 (1.88 to 4.24)
   < 10 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
   P for trend < 0.001 < 0.001 0.698 0.727 0.006 0.017 < 0.001 < 0.001
Total amount (1000 × kg, tertile)         
   Case/non-case 1,893/8,853   369/10,377   231/10,515   480/10,266  
   > 16.72 1.79 (1.49 to 2.16) 1.62 (1.34 to 1.97) 1.27 (0.81 to 1.99) 1.29 (0.82 to 2.04) 1.71 (0.95 to 3.10) 1.62 (0.89 to 2.96) 2.87 (1.86 to 4.41) 2.64 (1.71 to 4.08)
   4-16.72 1.65 (1.37 to 1.98) 1.49 (1.23 to 1.80) 2.36 (1.52 to 3.66) 2.39 (1.53 to 3.73) 1.19 (0.63 to 2.24) 1.13 (0.60 to 2.15) 2.97 (1.93 to 4.56) 2.78 (1.80 to 4.26)
   < 4 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
   P for trend < 0.001 < 0.001 0.103 0.125 0.014 0.023 < 0.001 0.001
Lifetime average amount, kg/year         
   Case/non-case 1,893/8,853   369/10,377   231/10,515   480/10,266  
   > 340 1.52 (1.29 to 1.78) 1.43 (1.21 to 1.68) 0.77 (0.55 to 1.09) 0.78 (0.55 to 1.10) 1.38 (0.89 to 2.14) 1.34 (0.86 to 2.10) 1.84 (1.33 to 2.54) 1.74 (1.25 to 2.41)
   81.8-340 1.35 (1.15 to 1.59) 1.28 (1.08 to 1.50) 1.38 (1.00 to 1.91) 1.38 (0.99 to 1.90) 0.96 (0.60 to 1.53) 0.95 (0.59 to 1.52) 1.99 (1.44 to 2.75) 1.92 (1.38 to 2.65)
   < 81.8 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
   P for trend < 0.001 < 0.001 0.004 0.006 0.030 0.044 0.006 0.016
  1. Adjusted for age and gender.
  2. Adjusted for age, gender, education level (less than high school, high school, above college or more), smoking (current, former, never), SHS (ever and never), pack-years, BMI ( < 18.5, 18.5-24.9, ≥ 25.0), and waist circumference.