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Table 2 Distribution of Selected Characteristics of Subjects and Parents by PCE Exposure Status

From: Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Both Prenatal and Early Childhood Exposure
(N = 831)
Unexposed
(N = 547)
  n % n %
Year of birth     
   1969-1974 166 20.0 131 23.9
   1975-1980 435 52.3 288 52.7
   1981-1983 230 27.7 128 23.4
Current age (n, mean, sd) 831 29.2 (3.6) 547 29.6 (3.8)
Gender     
   Male 331 39.8 216 39.5
   Female 500 60.2 331 60.5
% White race 818 98.4 539 98.5
Current Educational Level     
High school graduate
or less
128 15.4 67 12.2
   Some college 192 23.1 144 26.3
Four year college grad
or higher
510 61.4 335 61.2
   Missing 1 0.1 1 0.2
Currently Employed     
   Yes 719 86.5 487 89.0
   No 92 11.1 54 9.9
   Missing 20 2.4 6 1.1
Current marital status     
   Single 272 32.7 157 28.7
   Married or cohabitating 536 64.5 371 67.8
   Other 19 2.3 12 2.2
   Missing 4 0.5 7 1.3
History of chronic illness     
   Yes 111 13.4 73 13.3
   No 644 77.5 430 78.6
   Missing 76 9.1 44 8.0
Ever had job with solvent exposure     
   Yes 123 14.8 71 13.0
   No 687 82.7 461 84.3
   Missing 21 2.5 15 2.7
Ever had hobby with solvent exposure     
   Yes 700 84.2 462 84.5
   No 124 14.9 79 14.4
   Missing 7 0.8 6 1.1
Mother's age at subject's birth (n, mean (sd)) 831 27.2 (4.7) 547 27.5 (4.4)
Father's age at subject's birth (n, mean (sd)) 831 29.8 (5.7) 547 29.8 (5.3)
Mother's educational level at subject's birth     
High school graduate
or less
327 39.4 178 32.5
   Some college 243 29.2 188 34.4
Four year college
grad or higher
260 31.3 180 32.9
   Missing 1 0.1 1 0.2
Father's occupation at subject's birth     
   White collar 420 50.5 257 47.0
   Blue collar 275 33.1 170 31.1
   Other 126 15.2 112 20.5
   Missing 10 1.2 8 1.5
Mother received prenatal care during subject's gestation     
   Yes 794 95.5 520 95.1
   No 4 0.5 0 0.0
   Missing 33 4.0 27 4.9
Mother smoked cigarettes during subject's gestation     
   11+ cigarettes a day 108 13.0 59 10.8
10 or fewer
cigarettes a day
74 8.9 54 9.9
   None 483 58.1 330 60.3
   Missing 166 20.0 104 19.0
Mother consumed alcohol during subject's gestation     
   1+ drinks a week 109 13.1 76 13.9
   1-3 drinks a month 193 23.2 125 22.9
   None 361 43.4 242 44.2
   Missing 168 20.2 104 19.0
Mother smoked marijuana during subject's gestation     
   Yes 25 3.0 18 3.3
   No 640 77.0 420 76.8
   Missing 166 20.0 109 19.9
Mother had medical and obstetrical complications during subject's gestation     
   Yes 122 14.7 108 19.7
   No 536 64.5 331 60.5
   Missing 173 20.8 108 19.7
Mother had occupational exposure to solvents     
   Yes 76 9.1 51 9.3
   No 573 69.0 381 69.7
   Missing 182 21.9 115 21.0
Subject's birth weight
(n, mean, sd)
823 3,443 (506) 499 3,414 (534)
Subject's gestational age (n, mean, sd) 790 40.1 (2.5) 516 39.9 (2.4)
Multiple Pregnancy 21 2.5 20 3.7
Subject was breast fed     
   Yes 406 48.9 299 54.7
   No 254 30.6 140 25.6
   Missing 171 20.6 108 19.7
Number of older siblings     
   0 350 42.1 262 47.9
   1 287 34.5 163 29.8
   2+ 193 23.2 119 21.8
   Missing 1 0.1 3 0.5
Sibling died 16 1.9 15 2.7
Parent(s) divorced, separated, or died after subject's birth 51 6.1 32 5.9
Family history of schizophrenia     
   Yes 10 1.2 4 0.7
   No 800 96.3 536 98.0
   Missing 21 2.5 7 1.3
Family history of post-traumatic stress disorder     
   Yes 48 5.8 31 5.7
   No 741 89.2 500 91.4
   Missing 42 5.1 16 2.9
Family history of bipolar disorder     
   Yes 66 7.9 39 7.1
   No 727 87.5 497 90.9
Missing 38 4.6 11 2.0
Family history of depression     
   Yes 323 38.9 199 36.4
   No 458 55.1 321 58.7
   Missing 50 6.0 27 4.9