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Table 3 Prenatal and Early Childhood Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene and the Risk of Mental Illness

From: Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

Outcome Exposure Category/Percentile % Yes
(n/N)
Crude
Risk Ratio
(95% CI)
GEE*
Risk Ratio
(95%CI)
Depression Any 19.8 (152/769) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 1.1 (0.9-1.4)
  > = 67th 19.0 (47/248) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 1.1 (0.8-1.5)
  33rd-< 67th 20.8 (55/265) 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 1.2 (0.9-1.6)
  > 0-< 33rd 19.5 (50/256) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 1.1 (0.8-1.5)
  None 17.8 (92/518) Reference Reference
Bipolar Disorder Any 5.5 (36/653) 1.7 (0.9-3.2) 1.8 (0.9-3.5)
  > = 67th 8.2 (18/219) 2.6 (1.3-5.1) 2.7 (1.3-5.6)
  33rd-< 67th 3.2 (7/217) 1.0 (0.4-2.5) 1.1 (0.4-2.7)
  > 0-< 33rd 5.1 (11/217) 1.6 (0.7-3.5) 1.6 (0.7-3.7)
  None 3.2 (14/440) Reference Reference
Post-Traumatic Any 7.1 (47/664) 1.5 (0.9-2.5) 1.5 (0.9-2.5)
Stress Disorder > = 67th 8.2 (18/219) 1.7 (1.0-3.2) 1.7 (0.9-3.2)
  33rd-< 67th 6.7 (15/225) 1.4 (0.7-2.7) 1.4 (0.7-2.7)
  > 0-< 33rd 6.4 (14/220) 1.4 (0.7-2.6) 1.4 (0.7-2.6)
  None 4.7 (21/447) Reference Reference
Schizophrenia Any 0.5 (3/620) 2.1 (0.2-20.0) 2.1 (0.2-20.0)
  > = 67th 0.5 (1/202) -------- --------
  33rd-< 67th 0.9 (2/212) -------- --------
  > 0-< 33rd 0.0 (0/206) -------- --------
  None 0.2 (1/427) Reference Reference
  1. *Generalized estimating equations