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Table 1 Model used to predict historical PM2.5 using TSP measurements and census metropolitan area indicator variables (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 2.31).

From: Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study

Variables Estimate SE p
Intercept 1.93 2.30 0.42
TSP 0.13 1.78e-2 < 0.001*
CMA Indicator
   Calgary 0.44 2.63 0.87
   Edmonton -1.82 2.69 0.50
   Halifax 7.71 3.02 0.01*
   Hamilton 4.76 3.02 0.12
   Montreal 6.01 2.42 0.01*
   Ottawa 4.86 2.94 0.10
   Quebec 3.17 2.60 0.23
   St. Johns 5.72 3.81 0.13
   Saint John 3.28 30.7 0.29
   Toronto 5.63 2.60 0.03*
   Vancouver 6.50 2.47 0.01*
   Victoria 2.48 2.73 0.36
   Windsor 5.63 2.56 0.03*
   Winnipeg 1.00 - -
  1. Model performance: R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 2.31.R2 and RMSE estimated by regressing the predictions from the fixed-effects terms against measured values
  2. *Significant at p < 0.05