Skip to main content

Table 1 Percent1 distribution of study population characteristics, overall and among those with highest quartile of exposure, by race/ethnicity

From: Exposures to fine particulate air pollution and respiratory outcomes in adults using two national datasets: a cross-sectional study

  All2 Hispanic Non-Hispanic Black Non-Hispanic White
  N = 109,485, 100% N = 16,942, 10.5%1 N = 14,351, 10.7%1 73,495, 73.9%1
Health outcome Percent1 Percent1 Percent1 Percent1
   Reported asthma attack in the last year 3.7 3.0 4.1 3.8
   Still has asthma 7.0 5.1 8.0 7.1
   Asthma ER visit in the last year 1.0 1.2 1.9 0.8
   Sinusitis in the last year 14.7 8.6 14.4 16.0
   Chronic bronchitis in the last year 4.3 2.7 4.4 4.6
High PM2.5 exposure     
   Top quartile 23.3 30.4 28.5 21.4
Sex     
   Female 52.6 50.7 56.3 52.4
Age group     
   18 to 30 22.1 32.1 26.1 19.6
   31 to 40 19.1 25.1 21.0 17.8
   41 to 50 20.7 18.7 21.7 20.9
   51 to 60 16.0 11.2 14.3 17.1
   61+ 22.0 12.9 16.8 24.6
BMI classification     
   Normal 39.2 32.8 29.8 40.3
   Overweight 34.3 37.6 33.9 34.4
   Obese 26.5 29.7 36.3 25.3
Smoking status     
   Current smoker 20.3 15.7 20.2 21.2
   Former smoker 22.8 14.5 14.8 25.7
   Never smoker 56.8 69.8 65.0 53.1
Exercise     
   None 35.6 47.8 45.9 32.6
   Some 64.4 52.3 54.1 67.4
Education     
   Less than 12 years of education 13.2 36.3 17.6 9.4
   12 or more years of education 86.8 63.7 82.4 90.6
Urbanicity3     
   Large central metro 27.0 52.8 42.8 20.2
   Large fringe metro 24.9 17.9 21.7 26.3
   Medium metro 21.4 17.0 17.6 22.6
   Small metro 10.1 5.5 6.3 11.6
   Less urban 16.7 6.8 11.6 19.3
Percent poverty ratio     
   Less than 100% 10.7 20.5 20.3 7.7
   100- < 200% 16.8 27.3 22.1 14.5
   200- < 400% 31.4 31.0 31.0 31.8
   400% or greater 41.1 21.3 26.6 46.0
Health Insurance     
   Private 76.0 55.2 62.6 81.0
   Medicaid 7.5 15.4 16.0 5.0
   Other 8.0 6.7 10.3 8.0
   Uninsured 8.5 22.8 11.1 6.0
  1. 1All percents estimated using survey weights
  2. 2Includes adults who reported other race/ethnicity groups
  3. 3Described in text