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Table 1 Characteristics of French Pregnant Women at the Time of Urine Sampling, and of their Offspring (Eden and Pélagie Cohorts, 2002 – 2006)

From: Correcting for the influence of sampling conditions on biomarkers of exposure to phenols and phthalates: a 2-step standardization method based on regression residuals

  Eden-Poitiers (n = 91) Eden-Nancy (n = 100) Pélagie-Brittany (n = 96)   Overall (n = 287)
Characteristics of participants N (%) 5th-50th-95th centiles N (%) 5th -50th-95th centiles N (%) 5th -50th-95th centiles N (%) 5th -50th-95th centiles
Duration of gestationa   37-40-42   37-39-42   36-39-41   36-40-42
Age (years)   21.9-29.0-38.4   20.9-28.9-38.7   23.5-29.6-37.0   22.2-29.3-37.8
BMI b (kg/m² )   18.4-22.6-33.6   17.1-21.5-31.3   16.8-21.2-24.2   17.7-21.7-32.2
Previous livebirth         
  0 38 (42%)   34 (34%)   43 (45%)   115 (40%)  
  ≥ 1 31 (34%)   44 (44%)   39 (41%)   114 (40%)  
  ≥ 2 22 (24%)   22 (22%)   14 (14%)   58 (20%)  
Active smoking ( > 0 cig./day)c         
  No 74 (82%)   84 (84%)   80 (85%)   238 (83%)  
  Yes 17 (18%)   16 (16%)   14 (15%)   47 (17%)  
Alcohol ( > 0 glasses/day)c         
  No 57 (70%)   71 (82%)   79 (82%)   207(78%)  
  Yes 24 (30%)   16 (18%)   17 (18%)   57 (22%)  
Maternal education         
  High school or less 51 (58%)   44 (45%)   38 (40%)   133 (48%)  
  High school + 2 years or more 37 (42%)   53 (55%)   58 (60%)   148 (52%)  
Occupation b         
  No 31 (34%)   27 (27%)   12 (12%)   70 (25%)  
  Yes 59 (66%)   72 (73%)   84 (88%)   215 (75%)  
Date of urine sampling   Jul. 03- Nov. 04d- Aug. 05   Dec.03- Sept.04d- Jan.06   Aug. 02- Nov. 03d- Mar. 05   Mar. 03- Jun. 04d- Nov. 05
Urine Sampling conditions         
Time of sampling         
  Before 7.00 AM 12 (18%)   23 (23%)   -   35 (21%)  
  7.00 to 7.59 AM 29 (44%)   44 (44%)   -   73 (44%)  
  8.00 to 9.59 AM 13 (20%)   27 (27%)   -   40 (24%)  
  After 10.00 AM 12 (18%)   6 (6%)   -   18 (11%)  
Creatinine (g/l)   0.46-1.04-2   0.38-1.16-2.30   0.47-1.10-2.1   0.43-1.10-2.20
Gestational weeks at sampling   25-27-28.6   24.1-26.4-28.5   7.4-13-16.9   9.1-25.6-28.3
Duration of storage at room temperature (h)   0.7-3-6   3-5-8   24-48-168   1-5-120
Season of sampling         
  Jan-March 27 (30%)   32 (32%)   24 (25%)   83 (29%)  
  April-June 22 (24%)   27 (27%)   31 (32%)   80 (28%)  
  July-Sept 21 (23%)   17 (17%)   21 (22%)   59 (20%)  
  Oct-Dec 21 (23%)   24 (24%)   20 (21%)   65 (23%)  
Day of sampling         
Monday to Friday 91 (100%)   100(100%)   82 (85%)   273(95%)  
  Saturday or Sunday 0 (0%)   0 (0%)   14 (15%)   14 (5%)  
  1. a Gestational duration (weeks) at delivery.
  2. b Before pregnancy.
  3. c During pregnancy.
  4. d Median value. November 2004 means that half of the urine samples were collected after November 2004.