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Table 4 Phthalates Metabolites and Phenols Urinary Concentrations Among Pregnant Women From Eden and Pélagie Cohorts, France, 2002-2006

From: Correcting for the influence of sampling conditions on biomarkers of exposure to phenols and phthalates: a 2-step standardization method based on regression residuals

   Correction/standardization applied to the biomarker concentrations  
   No correction
(Crude concentrations, μ g/l)a (1)
Case – control sampling only ( μ g/l)a (2) Case – control sampling and creatinine
( μ g/g Cr)b (3)
Correction for case – control sampling and standardization for sampling conditions including creatinine c ( μ g/l)a (4) Correction for case – control sampling and standardization for sampling conditions excluding creatinine d ( μ g/l)a (5) Median change
(5 – 2)e
Correlation standardized – unstandardized (5)(2) f
Compound n Median 25th 75th Median 25th 75th Median 25th 75th Median 25th 75th Median 25th 75th   
Phthalate monoester metabolites
  MEHHP + MEOHP + MECPP + MEHP ( μ mol/l) 287 0.36 0.18 0.62 0.37 0.17 0.61 0.32 0.19 0.53 0.53 0.29 0.86 0.58 0.32 1.06 + 56% 0.94
  MiBP 287 50 29 97.5 45.9 30.2 84.0 45.7 28.0 71.9 59.2 39.0 101.5 64.7 41.2 119.3 + 41% 0.94
  MBP 287 57.5 30.5 104 48.1 28.9 86.7 48.5 27.6 75.5 57.5 35.9 86.4 58.1 34.3 105.6 + 21% 0.96
  MCCP 287 2.40 1.40 4.80 2.20 1.30 4.30 1.93 1.37 3.20 2.74 1.76 4.91 3.15 1.69 5.54 + 43% 0.94
  MBzP 287 18.5 10.4 40.3 17.7 9.3 33.5 16.0 8.6 28.0 20.4 9.7 42.9 21.7 9.6 57.7 +23% 0.88
  MEP 287 112 49.0 236 110 53.3 215 106 54.4 198 103 58.7 196 105 53.9 240 − 5% 0.95
  MCNP 287 1.90 1.10 3.40 1.70 1.10 3.00 1.59 1.15 2.51 2.89 2.05 5.00 3.06 1.89 5.63 +80% 0.95
  MCOP 287 3.10 1.50 6.20 2.70 1.40 5.10 2.37 1.44 4.58 3.81 2.04 7.39 3.89 2.12 7.93 +44% 0.93
Phenols                   
  2,4-DCP 191 0.90 0.50 1.60 0.90 0.50 1.50 0.78 0.51 1.48 0.78 0.47 1.51 0.77 0.49 1.59 − 14% 0.98
  2,5-DCP 191 10.30 4.10 26.8 10.2 4.10 26.50 8.88 4.27 24.4 6.73 3.08 23.3 6.37 2.92 25.6 − 38% 0.95
Sum of Parabens ( μ mol/l) 191 0.90 0.28 2.36 0.86 0.27 2.45 0.81 0.29 2.15 0.86 0.30 2.31 0.95 0.29 2.32 +10% 0.98
  BP3 191 1.60 0.60 4.10 1.70 0.70 4.40 1.63 0.64 4.19 1.13 0.59 3.87 1.30 0.54 4.04 − 24% 0.96
  BPA 191 2.80 1.60 4.90 2.70 1.70 5.50 2.50 1.62 4.49 3.06 1.80 5.26 3.11 1.92 6.11 +15% 0.95
  Triclosan 191 24.8 4.0 174 24.1 3.80 173 26.7 3.20 168.1 18.1 2.50 96.2 17.5 2.62 101.1 − 27% 0.99
  1. We applied correction factors of 0.66 and 0.72 to the monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations, respectively, because the analytic standards used were of inadequate purity.
  2. a For metabolites of DEHP and sum of parabens, concentrations are reported in μ mol/l.
  3. b For metabolites of DEHP and sum of parabens, corrected concentrations are reported in μ mol/g Creatinine. Correction for creatinine was performed by dividing biomarker concentrations by creatinine concentration.
  4. c Results corrected for over-representation of cases according to Richardson et al. (2007) and standardized for all sampling conditions (including creatinine) using formula (1) in the methods section.
  5. d Results corrected for over-representation of cases according to Richardson et al. (2007) and standardized for sampling conditions (excluding creatinine) using formula (1) in the methods section.
  6. e Relative changes in the median concentration of urinary biomarkers between the estimates of column (5) and (2).
  7. f Coefficient of correlation (Pearson) between non-standardized biomarkers levels corrected for the case – control sampling and concentrations corrected for the case – control sampling and standardized for all sampling conditions excluding creatinine.