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Table 1 Characteristics of 52 061 study participants, those who died during follow-up and those exposed to low and high levels of NO 2 at their residences (See Additional file 2 : Table S1 , Additional file 2 for further characteristics)

From: Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

Characteristica Cohort All-cause deathsb NO2 c<19.0 μg/m3 NO2≥19.0 μg/m3
% (No.) Median (5–95 percentile) % (No.) Median (5–95 percentile) % (No.) Median (5–95 percentile) % (No.) Median (5–95 percentile)
All participants 100% (52 061)   10.6% (5534)   75.0% (39 045)   25.0% (13 016)  
Age at baseline (years)   56.1 (50.7-64.1)   59.1 (51.2-64.7)   56.1 (50.7-64.1)   56.2 (50.7-64.2)
Sex         
 Male 47.5% (24 734)   59.5% (3 292)   48.0% (18 734)   46.1% (6 000)  
 Female 52.5% (27 327)   40.5% (2 242)   52.0% (20 311)   53.9% (7 016)  
School attendance (years)         
 < 8 32.8% (17 064)   42.2% (2 349)   32.4% (12 653)   33.9% (4 411)  
 8-10 46.2% (24 066)   41.1 % (2 274)   46.5% (18 169)   45.3% (5 897)  
 > 10 21.0% (10 931)   16.5% (911)   21.1% (8 223)   20.8% (2 708)  
Body mass index (kg/m2)   25.5 (20.4-33.3)   26.0 (19.8-34.6)   25.5 (20.5-33.1)   25.6 (20.3-33.9)
Physical activity (sport)         
 No 45.7% (23 787)   60.4% (3 345)   43.8% (17 104)   51.3% (6 683)  
 Yes (h/week) 54.3% (28 274) 2.0 (0.5-7.0) 39.6% (2 189) 2.0 (0.5-7.0) 56.2% (21 941) 2.0 (0.5-6.5) 48.7% (6 333) 2.0 (0.5-7.0)
Smoking         
 Never 36.0% (18 766)   18.4% (1 021)   37.5% (14 667)   31.5% (4 099)  
 Former 27.6% (14 354)   22.6% (1 249)   28.5% (11 107)   24.9% (3 247)  
 Current 36.4% (18 941)   59.0% (3 264)   34.0% (13 271)   43.5% (5 670)  
 Intensity (g/day) d   14.8 (3.8-34.4)   17.3 (6.0-36.7)   14.6 (3.7-34.6)   15.2 (4.0-34.1)
 Duration (years) d   33.0 (7.0-46.0)   38.0 (12.0-49.0)   32.0 (7.0-46.0)   34.0 (8.0-46.0)
Fruit and vegetable intake (g/day)   312 (96.0-734)   265 (71.8 -704)   315 (101-726)   301 (85.0 -754)
Cardiovascular disease at enrolment (any of the five below) 23.1% (12 015)   33.0% (1 828)   23.0% (8 973)   23.4% (3 042)  
 Myocardial infarction 2.0% (1 061)   6.4% (356)   2.0% (768)   2.2% (293)  
 Angina pectoris 3.1% (1 604)   6.3% (348)   3.0% (1 190)   3.2% (414)  
 Stroke 1.3% (682)   3.4% (187)   1.3% (498)   1.4% (184)  
 Hypertension 16.3% (8 485)   22.6% (1 251)   16.1% (6 303)   16.8% (2 182)  
 Hypercholesterolemia 7.4% (3 880)   10.0% (554)   7.6% (2 985)   6.9% (895)  
Diabetes mellitus at baseline 2.0% (1 069)   5.1% (284)   1.9% (754)   2.4% (315)  
NO2 at front door (μg/m3) since 1971c   15.1 (11.5-27.1)   16.6 (11.6-29.5)   14.2 (11.4-18.5)   22.1 (19.2-34.8)
Major roade within 50 m of address at baseline         
 No 92.0% (47 886)   89.6% (4 958)   97.0% (37 856)   77.1% (10 030)  
 Yes 8.0% (4 175)   10.4% (576)   3.0% (1 189)   22.9% (2 986)  
Traffic load within 200 m of the address at baseline (103 vehicle km/day)   2.5 (0.3-15.1)   3.5 (0.3-16.1)   1.7 (0.2-12.0)   6.9 (0.6-22.9)
Noise (L den ) at baseline address (dB)   56.4 (48.4-70.0)   57.9 (48.9-71.0)   54.6 (48.0-66.3)   63.4 (52.2-73.1)
  1. a At baseline unless otherwise specified.
  2. bExcluding external cause of death.
  3. cTime-weighted average for the period 1 January 1971 to death, censoring or end of follow-up.
  4. dBased on all people who had ever smoked; lifetime average smoking intensity.
  5. eMore than 10 000 vehicles per day.