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Table 3 Mortality rate ratios associated with different exposure measures at residential addresses

From: Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

  Mortality rate ratioa(95% confidence interval)
Exposure All causes (n = 5534) Cardiovascular disease (n = 1285) Ischemic heart disease (n = 548) Cerebrovascular disease (n = 292) Other cardiovascular disease (n = 376)
NO2 from 1971 onwardsb 1.13 (1.04-1.23) 1.26 (1.06-1.51) 1.12 (0.85-1.47) 1.11 (0.76-1.63) 1.72 (1.25-2.37)
NO2 from 1991 onwardsb 1.13 (1.05-1.22) 1.21 (1.02-1.42) 1.13 (0.88-1.45) 0.99 (0.70-1.41) 1.56 (1.17-2.10)
NO2 (1-year mean) at address at baselineb 1.09 (1.01-1.19) 1.16 (0.99-1.37) 1.09 (0.85-1.41) 1.06 (0.75-1.52) 1.42 (1.06-1.92)
Major road within 50 of address at baseline 0.94 (0.85-1.05) 0.98 (0.79-1.21) 1.04 (0.76-1.44) 0.87 (0.54-1.39) 1.03 (0.71-1.49)
Traffic load within 200 m of address at baselinec 1.01 (0.99-1.03) 1.02 (0.98-1.06) 1.01 (0.95-1.07) 1.02 (0.94-1.11) 1.03 (0.96-1.11)
  1. Results based on 677 761 person–years at risk for 52 061 cohort participants from baseline (1993–1997) through 2009.
  2. aAdjusted for sex, age (age was the time scale), calendar year, employment status, school attendance, occupation with potential exposure to smoke and fumes, smoking status, smoking intensity, smoking duration, environmental tobacco smoke, alcohol, fat, fish, fruit and vegetables, fiber, folate, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity with sport, hormone replacement therapy, average gross income of municipality of residence in 1995 and noise at the baseline address. The Cox model stratified for marital status.
  3. bThe mortality rate ratio is given per doubling of the NO2 concentration. The three NO2 measures correlated strongly; rs = 0.92 between NO2 from1971 and NO2 from 1991; rs = 0.87 between NO2 from1971 and NO2 at baseline; rs = 0.95 between NO2 from1991 and NO2 at baseline.
  4. cThe mortality rate ratio is given per doubling of the traffic load.