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Table 2 Person days with symptoms in the diary (n = number of expected person days)

From: Particulate matter air pollution and respiratory symptoms in individuals having either asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a European multicentre panel study

  Helsinki Athens Amsterdam Birmingham
  n = 6480 % n = 6300 % n = 6480 % n = 5220 %
Woken with breathing problems
No 4759 73.4 5334 84.7 4897 75.6 3953 75.7
Yes 978 15.1 667 10.6 958 14.8 808 15.5
Non response 743 11.5 299 4.7 625 9.6 459 8.8
Shortness of breath
No 3987 61.5 4891 77.7 3410 52.6 3111 59.6
Slight symptoms 1774 27.4 1015 16.1 2179 33.6 1443 27.6
Severe symptoms 140 2.2 96 1.5 284 4.4 206 4.0
Non response 579 8.9 298 4.7 607 9.4 460 8.8
Wheeze
No 4932 76.1 4325 68.7 4554 70.3 3182 61.0
Slight symptoms 923 14.2 1627 25.8 1102 17.0 1383 26.5
Severe symptoms 49 0.8 51 0.8 134 2.1 196 3.7
Non response 576 8.9 297 4.7 690 10.6 459 8.8
Cough
No 3418 52.8 4303 68.3 3251 50.1 2189 41.9
Slight symptoms 2305 35.6 1583 25.1 2234 34.5 2026 38.8
Severe symptoms 184 2.8 116 1.9 289 4.5 546 10.5
Non response 573 8.8 298 4.7 706 10.9 459 8.8
Phlegm
No 1973 30.5 3291 52.2 2957 45.6 2087 40.0
Slight symptoms 3462 53.4 2448 38.9 2597 40.1 2137 40.9
Severe symptoms 485 7.5 264 4.2 206 3.2 537 10.3
Non response 560 8.6 297 4.7 720 11.1 459 8.8
Limitation of vigorous activities a
No 3837 59.2 2716 43.1 3714 57.3 2663 51.0
Did activity slowly 1259 19.4 2661 42.2 897 13.8 988 18.9
Avoided activity completely 603 9.3 587 9.3 891 13.8 1113 21.3
Non response 781 12.1 336 5.4 978 15.1 456 8.8
Limitation of moderate activities a
No 3775 58.3 3928 62.3 4237 65.4 3420 65.5
Did activity slowly 2030 31.3 1874 29.8 1266 19.5 1211 23.2
Avoided activity completely 88 1.4 184 2.9 135 2.1 131 2.5
Non response 587 12.0 314 5.0 842 13.0 458 8.8
Limitation of walking a
No 4867 75.1 3455 54.8 4449 68.7 3472 66.5
Did activity slowly 795 12.3 2438 38.7 1132 17.5 1228 23.5
Avoided activity completely 94 1.4 62 1.0 152 2.3 63 1.2
Non response 724 11.2 345 5.5 747 11.5 457 8.8
  1. a due to breathing problems.