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Table 2 Intake of food contaminants in preschool-aged children (mg/kg/day)

From: Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: a risk assessment

Preschool-aged Children (2–4) (n=207)*
Toxin Descriptive exposure statistics Benchmarks dosages
N exposed based on dietary data Mean daily intake (mg/kg bodyweight/ day) SD of daily intake (mg/kg bodyweight/ day) 10th percentile of daily intake (mg/kg bodyweight/ day) median of daily intake (mg/kg bodyweight/day) 90th percentile of daily intake (mg/kg bodyweight/day) Reference Dosage (RfD) (mg/kg bodyweight/day) % participants > RfD Cancer Benchmark (CB) (mg/kg bodyweight/ day) % participants > Cancer Benchmark
Acrylamide 207 1.18E-03 9.48E-04 3.17E-04 9.22E-04 2.51E-03 0.0002 97.10% - -
Metals          -  
 Arsenic 207 1.98E-04 2.37E-04 3.84E-05 1.02E-04 4.03E-04 0.0003 18.36% 6.67E-07 100.0%
 Lead 207 1.36E-04 6.92E-05 5.90E-05 1.18E-04 2.35E-04 0.000 100.00% - -
Methylmercury 147 3.17E-05 5.68E-05 1.40E-06 2.53E-05 1.02E-04 0.0001 10.20% - -
Current use pesticides
 Chlorpyrifos 207 7.45E-05 6.56E-05 1.60E-05 5.59E-05 1.51E-04 0.003 0.00% - -
 Permethrin 207 1.29E-04 1.60E-04 3.06E-06 7.35E-05 3.32E-04 0.05 0.00% - -
 Endosulfan 207 4.01E-05 3.31E-05 1.07E-05 3.16E-05 8.95E-05 0.006 0.00% - -
Persistent organic pollutants
 Chlordane 207 1.54E-06 8.45E-07 4.84E-07 1.46E-06 2.63E-06 0.0005 0.00% 2.86E-06 6.76%
 Dieldrin 207 4.17E-06 3.03E-06 1.52E-06 3.36E-06 7.82E-06 0.00005 0.00% 6.25E-08 100.00%
 DDE 207 3.39E-05 1.78E-05 1.36E-05 3.12E-05 5.51E-05 0.000 100.00% 2.94E-06 100.00%
 PCDD/Fs 207 1.01E-09 4.78E-10 4.74E-10 9.34E-10 1.58E-09 2.30E-09 2.42% 1.00E-12 100.00%
  1. Boldface values represent whole-population average estimated exposures that exceed the non-cancer or cancer benchmarks.
  2. †† Cancer benchmarks equal 10-6 divided by the cancer slope factor and represents the exposure concentration at which lifetime cancer risk is one in one million.
  3. The source is the EPA IRIS except for PCDD/Fs, for which the cancer potency factor for TCDD was used from the EPA dioxin reassessment (2003) [34].
  4. The EPA has concluded that setting RfDs for lead is inappropriate because effects occur at levels so low as to be essentially without a threshold. The EPA has also not set a reference dosage for DDE thus both are presented as having a RfD of zero.