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Table 3 Top five food sources for contaminants in preschool-aged children a

From: Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: a risk assessment

Toxins (RfD) μg/kg/day Preschool-aged Children 2–4 yrs old (n=207)
  Highest 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Acrylamide (0.2 μg/kg/day) crackers fried potatoesb cereal graham crackers chips
 Mean μg/kg/day 0.434607 0.257568 0.188175 0.574920 0.323679
 n 125 118 100 94 71
 % range 3.9-82.4% 8.9-76.7% 2.2-70.4% 6.2-84.1% 4.2-96.6%
Metals Highest 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
 Arsenic (0.3 μ g/kg/day) poultryb cereal salmon tuna mushrooms
  Mean μg/kg/day 0.022756 0.014547 0.141837 0.183135 0.052914
  n 148 81 77 70 61
  % range 0.6-74.7% 2.3-47.9% 2.3-97.6% 10.3-96.4% 0.6-81.9%
 Lead (0.0 μ g/kg/day)* dairyb apple juice grapes cookies sweet potatoesc
  Mean μg/kg/day 0.032679 0.043302 0.017289 0.015441 0.039843
  n 184 112 58 42 36
  % range 7.1-83.8% 4.8-78.3% 3.2-35.5% 5.2-40.0% 7.5-63.1%
 Methylmercury (0.1 μ g/kg/day) seafoodb tuna freshwater fishb n/a n/a
  Mean μg/kg/day 0.030454 0.033099 0.015439 n/a n/a
  n 91 72 69 n/a n/a
  % range 1.6-100% 5.7-100% 0.7-100% n/a n/a
Pesticides Highest 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
 Chlorpyrifos (3.0 µ g/kg/day) grapes apples peaches dairyb tomatoes
  Mean μg/kg/day 0.027609 0.017583 0.019758 0.002052 0.006011
  n 179 174 127 49 28
  % range 3.9-86.8% 3.9-91% 2.4-69.9% 1.2-60.8% 2.7-48.9%
 Permethrin (50.0 μ g/kg/day) lettuce spinach broccolib tomatoes peaches
  Mean μg/kg/day 0.072562 0.138982 0.005281 0.014693 0.003968
  n 108 103 102 86 59
  % range 4.9-98.5% 3.4-99.4% 0.5-99% 1.2-98.7% 0.2-98.9%
 Endosulfan (6.0 μ g/kg/day) apples peaches strawberries tomatoes pears
  Mean μg/kg/day 0.008055 0.009462 0.006409 0.009509 0.006667
  n 129 99 94 75 48
  % range 1.2-79.4% 7.6-77.5% 4.8-62.1% 8.8-85.8% 7.2-63.3%
POPs Highest 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
 Chlordane (0.5 μ g/kg/day) dairyb cucumber meatb popcorn potatoes
  Mean μg/kg/day 0.012221 0.003734 0.000745 0.000844 0.000985
  n 200 96 94 65 55
  % range 1.0-99.8% 1.4-96.3% 1.0-55.0% 0.8-20.1% 0.3-44.2%
 Dieldrin (0.05 μ g/kg/day) dairyb meatb cucumber cantaloupe pizza
  Mean μg/kg/day 0.001563 0.000606 0.002496 0.000547 0.000172
  n 195 108 101 63 40
  % range 5.7-96.0% 1.4-76.4% 5.2-93.6% 3.4-61.7% 1.1-56.6%
 DDE (0.0 μ g/kg/day)* dairyb potatoes meatb freshwater fishb pizza
  Mean μg/kg/day 0.020878 0.006516 0.003474 0.01115 0.00151
  n 199 101 94 62 61
  % range 6.1-97.5% 1.1-81.6% 1.9-43.4% 1.8-86.8% 1.3-48.3%
 PCDD/Fs (0.002 ng/kg/day) dairyb meatb potatoes cereal mushrooms
  Mean ng/kg/day 0.000469 0.000202 0.000139 0.000058 0.000155
  n 196 128 39 39 39
  % range 7.9-86.2% 3.1-60.0% 3.7-62.2% 2.6-19.8% 3.1-44.5%
  1. a Daily exposure totals (in μg/kg/day) calculated (in ppb), except PCDD/Fs, which are presented as ng/kg/day; reference dosages are presented in same units. Top sources were calculated by taking the top three food contributors to each individual’s exposure (per contaminant) and summarizing across the population the five foods appearing most commonly in the 3 highest ranks. The n refers to the number of participants for whom that food was among the top three contributors to intake for the given contaminant. The percentage range is the minimum to maximum contribution, across all individuals reporting that food item, for each of the main food items to total intake of the given contaminant.
  2. b Indicates a food subgroup. Dairy: all dairy and egg products; broccoli: broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts; peaches: peaches, nectarines, plums; meat: beef, pork, lamb; poultry: chicken, turkey.
  3. c canned sweet potatoes.