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Table 1 Characteristics of community water systems (CWSs) in study sample compared to all CWSs in study region with geographic coordinates, 2005-2007, San Joaquin Valley, CA

From: Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California’s San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems

Variable of interest Active CWS with geographic coordinates n = 644 CWS in study: active, w/ coordinates and arsenic samples n = 464 CWS in study: < 200 connections n = 324 CWS in study: ≥ 200 connections n = 140
Total population (count) 3,037,785 1,134,017 49,340 1,084,677
Population Characteristics (%)     
People of Color (Latinos and Non-Latinos) 53 55 38 56
White population 47 45 62 44
Population above povertya 57 54 60 54
Water System Characteristics (%)     
Mean People of Color 42 39 35 50
Mean Home Ownership 67 70 72 67
Population served (mean/median) 4,717/163 2,444/180 152/100 7,748/2537
Incorporated b 10 9 1 29
< 200 Connections 72 70 100 0
Groundwater Alone (GW)c 88 92 95 87
GW and surface waterc 7 4 2 9
Publicly ownedd 32 32 13 75
Privately owned non-PUC reg.d 60 61 80 16
Water Quality Characteristics     
Min-Max; mean (μg As/L) NA 0-158; 6.0 0-158; 6.2 0-42; 57
IQR (μg As/L) NA 1.4, 6.3 1.4, 6.2 1.4, 7.3
CWS with 31 As MCL Viol 44 34 15 19
  1. NA not applicable because not all active sources had arsenic samples, IQR interquartile range.
  2. a Above 200% the poverty level; b A water system that serves a city that is a legally recognized municipal corporation with a charter from the state and governing officials that is incorporated, as opposed to a water system that serves an unincorporated area; c Reference group=surface water only; d Reference group=privately owned and Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulated or unknown.