Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison of element concentrations (median, minimum and maximum values) in breast milk of Uppsala women (n = 60) 2000-2009 with Swedish women (n = 64) included in the WHO 1989 study[4]

From: Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study

  Uppsala 2000-2009 WHO 1989
  Median Min Max Median Min Max
Macroelements       
Ca (mg/L) 307 196 416 235 187 324
K (mg/L) 636 549 729 548 397 711
Mg (mg/L) 28 21 43 34 20 60
Na (mg/L) 192 136 480 88 37 306
P (mg/L) 171 126 233 142 131 150
Microelements       
Co (μg/L) 0.047 0.022 0.38 0.27 0.10 0.75
Cr (μg/L) 0.23 0.026 1.5 1.5 0.61 4.3
Cu (μg/L) 471 327 670 186 80 408
Fe (μg/L) 309 135 794 446 205 1049
Mn (μg/L) 2.6 0.79 8.4 3.2 1.5 26
Mo (μg/L) 2.4 0.80 12 0.40 0.00 5.9
Se (μg/L) 12 8.8 18 13 3.7 25
Zn (μg/L) 3524 1238 5710 700 270 1990
Toxic elements       
As (μg/L) 0.33 0.041 4.6 0.55 0.37 5.5
Cd (μg/L) 0.075 0.028 0.27 0.10 0.1 3.8
Pb (μg/L) 1.2 0.74 6.4 17 9.6 37
Sb (μg/L) 0.031 0.018 0.15 3.0 0.3 23
V (μg/L) 0.039 0.015 0.56 0.13 0.05 0.16