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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population and frequency of wheeze, eczema and food allergy according to those characteristics (n = 1500)

From: Maternal fish and shellfish consumption and wheeze, eczema and food allergy at age two: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France

Variables Total No. (%) Probable wheeze No. (%) Certain wheeze No. (%) p-value* Eczema No. (%) p-value* Food allergy No. (%) p-value*
  Maternal factors  
Age (years)
  <28 445 (29.7) 196 (44.5) 93 (21.14) 0.59 150 (33.9) 0.28 31 (7.0) 0.12
  28 ≤ age < 32 542 (36.1) 236 (43.7) 114 (21.11)   176 (32.8)   50 (9.3)  
  ≥32 513 (34.2) 224 (43.8) 93 (18.0)   149 (29.3)   55 (10.9)  
Education
  ≤12 years 497 (33.2) 225 (45.6) 107 (21.7) 0.17 157 (31.8) 0.96 39 (8.0) 0.27
  >12 years 1000 (66.8) 430 (43.2) 192 (19.3)   317 (32.0)   97 (9.7))  
No. of cigarettes/day at beginning of pregnancy
  0 1111 (74.3) 490 (44.4) 213 (19.3) 0.56 348 (31.6) 0.69 102 (9.2) 0.93
  1 to 5 205 (13.7) 85 (41.6) 50 (24.5)   64 (31.7)   19 (9.4)  
  >5 179 (12.0) 77 (43.0) 36 (20.1)   62 (34.8)   15 (8.4)  
Folic acid supplementation
  Yes 251 (17.0) 102 (40.6) 51 (20.3) 0.44 91 (36.4) 0.11 27 (10.8) 0.30
  No 1225 (83.0) 543 (44.6) 245 (20.1)   378 (31.2)   106 (8.7)  
  Child/perinatal factors  
Familial history of asthma/allergy
  Yes 371 (29.4) 161 (43.6) 100 (27.1) <0.001 133 (36.3) 0.04 52 (14.1) <0.001
  No 890 (70.6) 372 (42.1) 159 (18.0)   269 (30.4)   69 (7.8)  
Child’s sex
  Male 772 (51.5) 349 (45.6) 182 (23.8) <0.001 276 (36.0) <0.001 79 (10.3) 0.10
  Female 728 (48.5) 307 (42.3) 117 (16.1)   199 (27.6)   57 (7.9)  
Cesarean section
  Yes 255 (17.3) 122 (48.0) 53 (20.9) 0.17 74 (29.5) 0.40 22 (8.7) 0.83
  No 1218 (82.7) 523 (43.2) 236 (19.5)   389 (32.2)   110 (9.1)  
Preterm birth (<37 weeks of gestation)
  Yes 49 (3.3) 26 (53.1) 16 (32.6) 0.003 17 (34.7) 0.68 4 (8.3) 0.84
  No 1450 (96.7) 629 (43.6) 283 (19.6)   458 (31.9)   132 (9.2)  
Small-for-gestational age (<10th percentile)
  Yes 97 (6.5) 46 (47.9) 22 (22.9) 0.35 40 (41.7) 0.03 8 (8.2) 0.75
  No 1401 (93.5) 608 (43.6) 277 (19.9)   435 (31.3)   128 (9.2)  
No. of siblings at birth
  0 645 (43.2) 297 (46.5) 100 (15.6) 0.004 213 (33.3) 0.43 60 (9.4) 0.51
  1 562 (37.6) 235 (42.0) 137 (24.5)   178 (32.0)   55 (9.8)  
  ≥2 287 (19.2) 121 (42.3) 62 (21.7)   83 (29.0)   21 (7.4)  
Feeding during the first 3 months
  Formula 506 (34.5) 210 (41.7) 107 (21.3) 0.67 171 (34.1) 0.02 50 (10.0) 0.23
  Mixed 434 (29.6) 201 (46.6) 81 (18.8)   150 (34.8)   45 (10.4)  
  Breast 528 (35.9) 233 (44.4) 104 (19.8)   144 (27.5)   39 (7.5)  
Farm animal contact
  Yes 463 (31.0) 201 (43.9) 87 (19.0) 0.77 155 (33.7) 0.29 41 (8.9) 0.88
  No 1028 (69.0) 448 (43.7) 210 (20.5)   315 (30.9)   93 (9.1)  
Collective day care attendance
  Yes 154 (11.0) 72 (47.4) 38 (25.0) 0.05 59 (38.6) 0.07 20 (13.2) 0.07
  No 1240 (89.0) 536 (43.5) 239 (19.4)   385 (31.3)   108 (8.7)  
Mold and/or dampness at home
  Yes 46 (3.2) 23 (51.1) 7 (15.6) 0.60 14 (30.4) 0.80 11 (23.9) <0.001
  No 1396 (96.8) 613 (44.1) 280 (20.2)   445 (32.1)   122 (8.8)  
No. of cigarettes/day smoked at home
  0 880 (61.2) 392 (44.9) 161 (18.5) 0.11 285 (32.7) 0.53 82 (9.4) 0.86
  1 to 20 467 (32.50) 193 (41.4) 102 (21.9)   138 (29.8)   43 (9.3)  
  > 20 90 (6.3) 38 (42.2) 26 (28.9)   27 (30.0)   10 (11.1)  
Child’s age at follow-up (months)
  22 ≤ age ≤ 24 390 (26.0) 144 (37.0) 65 (16.7) <0.001 119 (30.7) 0.03 37 (9.66) 0.48
  24 < age ≤ 26 272 (18.1) 138 (50.9) 48 (17.7)   68 (25.2)   27 (10.0)  
  26 < age ≤ 28 445 (29.7) 192 (43.4) 101 (22.8)   152 (34.5)   44 (9.9)  
  >28 392 (26.1) 182 (46.9) 84 (21.6)   135 (34.8)   28 (7.2)  
  1. *Chi square test.