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Table 2 Risk factors for specific birth defects and childhood cancers, Camp Lejeune, 1968–1985

From: Evaluation of exposure to contaminated drinking water and specific birth defects and childhood cancers at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina: a case–control study

Potential risk factor Controls* Neural tube defects Oral clefts Cancers**
  # (%) # (%) OR (95%CI) # (%) OR (95%CI) # (%) OR (95%CI)
Maternal age        
<20 86 (16.4) 5 (33.3) 2.6 (0.9, 7.6) 4 (16.7) 1.0 (0.3, 3.1) 2 (15.4) 0.9 (0.2, 4.3)
≥20 438 (83.6) 10 (66.7) 1.0 (ref.) 20 (83.3) 1.0 (ref.) 11 (84.6) 1.0 (ref.)
Maternal education        
Not a college graduate 375 (72.1) 10 (66.7) 0.8 (0.3, 2.3) 19 (82.6) 1.8 (0.6, 5.5) 12 (92.3) 4.6 (0.6, 36.0)
College graduate 145 (27.9) 5 (33.3) 1.0 (ref.) 4 (17.4) 1.0 (ref.) 1 (7.7) 1.0 (ref.)
Prenatal Care†        
“Inadequate” 44 (9.2) 1 (6.7) 0.7 (0.1, 5.5) 2 (9.1) 1.0 (0.2, 4.4) 1 (8.3) 0.9 (0.1, 7.1)
“Adequate” 436 (90.8) 14 (93.3) 1.0 (ref.) 20 (90.9) 1.0 (ref.) 11 (91.7) 1.0 (ref.)
Prenatal vitamins, 1st trimester        
No 64 (14.9) 2 (13.3) 0.9 (0.2, 4.0) 4 (18.2) 1.3 (0.4, 3.9) 1 (8.3) 0.5 (0.1, 4.1)
Yes 365 (85.1) 13 (86.7) 1.0 (ref.) 18 (81.8) 1.0 (ref.) 11 (91.7) 1.0 (ref.)
1st pregnancy 168 (32.4) 7 (46.7) 1.8 (0.7, 5.1) 12 (52.2) 2.3 (1.0, 5.3) 1 (8.3) 0.2 (0.0, 1.5)
>1 pregnancy 351 (67.6) 8 (53.3) 1.0 (ref.) 11 (47.8) 1.0 (ref.) 11 (91.7) 1.0 (ref.)
Mother worked, 1st trimester        
Yes 76 (15.3) 1 (7.7) 0.5 (0.1, 3.6) 5 (25.0) 1.9 (0.7, 5.2) 2 (15.4) 1.0 (0.2, 4.6)
No 421 (84.7) 12 (92.3) 1.0 (ref.) 15 (75.0) 1.0 (ref.) 11 (84.6) 1.0 (ref.)
Smoking, 1st trimester        
Yes 130 (29.3) 1 (6.7) 0.2 (0.0, 1.3) 4 (18.2) 0.5 (0.2, 1.6) 5 (41.7) 1.7 (0.5, 5.5)
No 314 (70.7) 14 (93.3) 1.0 (ref.) 18 (81.8) 1.0 (ref.) 7 (58.3) 1.0 (ref.)
Alcohol, 1st trimester        
Yes 96 (21.7) 3 (21.4) 1.0 (0.3, 3.6) 7 (31.8) 1.7 (0.7, 4.3) 1 (8.3) 0.3 (0.0, 2.6)
No 347 (78.3) 11 (78.6) 1.0 (ref.) 15 (68.2) 1.0 (ref.) 11 (91.7) 1.0 (ref.)
Fevers, 1st trimester        
Yes 45 (10.7) 1 (6.7) 0.6 (0.1, 4.6) 3 (13.6) 1.3 (0.4, 4.6) 2 (18.2) 1.9 (0.4, 8.9)
No 376 (89.3) 14 (93.3) 1.0 (ref.) 19 (86.4) 1.0 (ref.) 9 (81.8) 1.0 (ref.)
Passive smoke, 1st trimester        
Yes 203 (45.9) 5 (33.3) 0.6 (0.2, 1.8) 6 (27.3) 0.4 (0.2, 1.2) 7 (58.3) 1.7 (0.5, 5.3)
No 239 (54.1) 10 (66.7) 1.0 (ref.) 16 (72.7) 1.0 (ref.) 5 (41.7) 1.0 (ref.)
Child’s sex        
Male 274 (52.1) 6 (40.0) 0.6 (0.2, 1.8) 9 (37.5) 0.6 (0.2, 1.3) 8 (61.5) 1.5 (0.5, 4.6)
Female 252 (47.9) 9 (60.0) 1.0 (ref.) 15 (67.5) 1.0 (ref.) 5 (38.5) 1.0 (ref.)
Child’s race        
Non-white 131 (25.0) 1 (6.7) 0.2 (0.0,1.6) 6 (25.0) 1.0 (0.4, 2.6) 5 (38.5) 1.9 (0.6-5.8)
“White” 393 (75.0) 14 (93.3) 1.0 (ref.) 18 (75.0) 1.0 (ref.) 8 (61.5) 1.0 (ref.)
Child’s sibling has birth defect        
Yes 45 (11.0) 2 (14.3) 1.3 (0.3, 6.2) 6 (27.3) 3.0 (1.1, 8.2) 3 (27.3) 3.0 (0.8, 11.8)
No 364 (89.0) 12 (85.7) 1.0 (ref.) 16 (72.7) 1.0 (ref.) 8 (72.7) 1.0 (ref.)
Dad smoked † †        
Yes 273 (52.6) 6 (40.0) 0.6 (0.2, 1.7) 8 (36.4) 0.5 (0.2, 1.3) 9 (69.2) 2.0 (0.6, 6.7)
No 246 (47.4) 9 (60.0) 1.0 (ref.) 14 (63.6) 1.0 (ref.) 4 (30.8) 1.0 (ref.)
Dad possibly exposed to Agent Orange        
Yes 158 (31.2) 3 (20.0) 0.6 (0.2, 2.0) 6 (26.1) 0.8 (0.3, 2.0) 5 (38.5) 1.4 (0.4, 4.3)
No 348 (68.8) 12 (80.0) 1.0 (ref.) 17 (73.9) 1.0 (ref.) 8 (61.5) 1.0 (ref.)
Dad occupationally exposed to solvents §        
Yes 167 (32.5) 6 (40.0) 1.4 (0.5-3.9) 6 (26.1) 0.7 (0.3-1.9) 4 (30.8) 0.9 (0.3-3.0)
No 347 (67.5) 9 (60.0) 1.0 (ref.) 17 (73.9) 1.0 (ref.) 9 (69.2) 1.0 (ref.)
  1. *one control series for all case groups.
  2. ** childhood leukemia and childhood non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  3. † “Adequate”: prenatal care began during 1st trimester; “Inadequate”: prenatal care began later in pregnancy or no care was received.
  4. † † During the three months before conception.
  5. § During the six months before conception.