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Table 4 Neural tube defects and average VOC exposure*, first trimester, Camp Lejeune, 1968–1985

From: Evaluation of exposure to contaminated drinking water and specific birth defects and childhood cancers at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina: a case–control study

  Controls Neural tube defects
Unadjusted
p-value
  # (%) # (%) OR (95%CI)  
PCE    
Unexposed 330 (62.7) 10 (66.7) 1.0 (ref.)  
Below MCL (>0- ≤ 5 ppb) 27 (5.1) 3 (20.0) 3.7 (1.0-14.1) 0.06
Above MCL (> 5 ppb) 169 (32.1) 2 (13.3) 0.4 (0.1- 1.8) 0.23
Unexposed 330 (62.7) 10 (66.7) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 196 (37.2) 5 (33.3) 0.8 (0.3-2.5) 0.76
TCE    
Unexposed 287 (54.6) 7 (46.7) 1.0 (ref.)  
Low (>0- ≤ 2 ppb) 114 (21.7) 4 (26.7) 1.4 (0.4-5.0) 0.57
High (> 2 ppb) 125 (23.8) 4 (26.7) 1.3 (0.4-4.6) 0.67
Unexposed 287 (54.6) 7 (46.7) 1.0 (ref.)  
Below MCL (>0- ≤ 5 ppb) 188 (35.7) 5 (33.3) 1.1 (0.3-3.5) 0.88
Above MCL (>5 ppb) 51 (9.7) 3 (20.0) 2.4 (0.6-9.6) 0.21
Unexposed 287 (54.6) 7 (46.7) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 239 (45.4) 8 (53.3) 1.4 (0.5-3.8) 0.55
Benzene    
Unexposed 453 (86.1) 9 (60.0) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 73 (13.9) 6 (40.0) 4.1 (1.4-12.0) 0.01
Vinyl Chloride    
Unexposed 329 (62.5) 9 (60.0) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 197 (37.5) 6 (40.0) 1.1 (0.4-3.2) 0.84
DCE    
Unexposed 328 (62.4) 9 (60.0) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 198 (37.6) 6 (40.0) 1.1 (0.4-3.1) 0.85
  1. * when possible, we divided the exposed group by the 50th percentile level among controls (low and high); we excluded categorizations where there were <2 exposed cases in a cell.