Skip to main content

Table 5 Oral cleft defects and average VOC exposure*, first trimester, Camp Lejeune, 1968–1985

From: Evaluation of exposure to contaminated drinking water and specific birth defects and childhood cancers at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina: a case–control study

  Controls Oral clefts
Unadjusted
p-value
  # (%) # (%) OR (95%CI)  
PCE    
Unexposed 304 (57.8) 17 (70.8) 1.0 (ref.)  
Low (>0- < 44 ppb) 111 (21.1) 4 (16.7) 0.6 (0.2-2.0) 0.43
High (≥ 44 ppb) 111 (21.1) 3 (12.5) 0.5 (0.1-1.7) 0.25
Unexposed 304 (57.8) 17 (70.8) 1.0 (ref.)  
Below MCL (>0- ≤ 5 ppb) 37 (7.0) 2 (8.3) 1.0 (0.2-4.4) 0.96
Above MCL (> 5 ppb) 185 (35.2) 5 (20.8) 0.5 (0.2-1.3) 0.16
Unexposed 304 (57.8) 17 (70.8) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 222 (42.2) 7 (29.2) 0.6 (0.2-1.4) 0.21
TCE    
Unexposed 253 (48.1) 15 (62.5) 1.0 (ref.)  
Low (>0- ≤ 2 ppb) 130 (24.7) 4 (16.7) 0.5 (0.2-1.6) 0.25
High (> 2 ppb) 143 (27.2) 5 (20.8) 0.6 (0.2-1.7) 0.32
Unexposed 253 (48.1) 15 (62.5) 1.0 (ref.)  
Below MCL (>0- ≤ 5 ppb) 212 (40.3) 6 (25.0) 0.5 (0.2-1.3) 0.13
Above MCL (>5 ppb) 61 (11.6) 3 (12.5) 0.8 (0.2-3.0) 0.77
Unexposed 253 (48.1) 15 (62.5) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 273 (51.9) 9 (37.5) 0.6 (0.2-1.3) 0.17
Benzene    
Unexposed 432 21 (87.5) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 94 3 (12.5) 0.7 (0.2-2.2) 0.50
Vinyl Chloride    
Unexposed 301 (57.2) 17 (70.8) 1.0 (ref.)  
Low (>0- < 3 ppb) 141 (26.8) 4 (16.7) 0.5 (0.2-1.5) 0.22
High (≥ 3 ppb) 84 (16.0) 3 (12.5) 0.6 (0.2-2.2) 0.47
Unexposed 301 (57.2) 17 (70.8) 1.0 (ref.)  
Below MCL (>0- ≤ 2 ppb) 74 (14.1) 4 (16.7) 1.0 (0.3-3.0) 0.94
Above MCL (> 2 ppb) 151 (28.7) 3 (12.5) 0.4 (0.1-1.2) 0.10
Unexposed 301 (57.2) 17 (70.8) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 225 (42.8) 7 (29.2) 0.6 (0.2-1.4) 0.19
DCE    
Unexposed 300 (57.0) 17 (70.8) 1.0 (ref.)  
Low (>0- < 5 ppb) 116 (22.1) 4 (16.7) 0.6 (0.2-1.8) 0.38
High (≥ 5 ppb) 110 (20.9) 3 (12.5) 0.5 (0.1-1.7) 0.25
Unexposed 300 (57.0) 17 (70.8) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 226 (43.0) 7 (29.2) 0.5 (0.2-1.3) 0.19
  1. * when possible, we divided the exposed group by the 50th percentile level among controls (low and high); we excluded categorizations where there were <2 exposed cases in a cell.