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Table 6 Childhood cancers* and average VOC exposure**, first trimester, Camp Lejeune, 1968–1985

From: Evaluation of exposure to contaminated drinking water and specific birth defects and childhood cancers at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina: a case–control study

  Controls Cancers
Unadjusted
p-value
  # (%) # (%) OR (95%CI)  
PCE    
Unexposed 304 (57.8) 6 (46.2) 1.0 (ref.)  
Low (>0- < 44 ppb) 111 (21.1) 4 (30.8) 1.8 (0.5-6.6) 0.36
High (≥ 44 ppb) 111 (21.1) 3 (23.1) 1.4 (0.3-5.6) 0.66
Unexposed 304 (57.8) 6 (46.2) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 222 (42.2) 7 (53.8) 1.6 (0.5-4.8) 0.41
TCE    
Unexposed 253 (48.1) 6 (46.2) 1.0 (ref.)  
Low (>0- ≤ 2 ppb) 130 (24.7) 5 (38.5) 1.6 (0.5-5.4) 0.43
High (> 2 ppb) 143 (27.2) 2 (15.4) 0.6 (0.1-3.0) 0.52
Unexposed 253 (48.1) 6 (46.2) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 273 (51.9) 7 (53.8) 1.1 (0.4-3.3) 0.89
Benzene    
Unexposed 432 11 (84.6) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 94 2 (15.4) 0.8 (0.2-3.8) 0.82
Vinyl Chloride    
Unexposed 301 (57.2) 6 (46.2) 1.0 (ref.)  
Low (>0- < 3 ppb) 141 (26.8) 5 (38.5) 1.8 (0.5-6.0) 0.35
High (≥ 3 ppb) 84 (16.0) 2 (15.4) 1.2 (0.2-6.0) 0.83
Unexposed 301 (57.2) 6 (46.2) 1.0 (ref.)  
Below MCL (>0- ≤ 2 ppb) 74 (14.1) 3 (23.1) 2.0 (0.5-8.3) 0.32
Above MCL (> 2 ppb) 151 (28.7) 4 (30.8) 1.3 (0.4-4.8) 0.66
Unexposed 301 (57.2) 6 (46.2) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 225 (42.8) 7 (53.8) 1.6 (0.5-4.7) 0.43
DCE    
Unexposed 300 (57.0) 6 (46.2) 1.0 (ref.)  
Low (>0- < 5 ppb) 116 (22.1) 4 (30.8) 1.7 (0.5-6.2) 0.41
High (≥ 5 ppb) 110 (20.9) 3 (23.1) 1.4 (0.3-5.5) 0.66
Unexposed 300 (57.0) 6 (46.2) 1.0 (ref.)  
Exposed 226 (43.0) 7 (53.8) 1.5 (0.5-4.7) 0.44
  1. *childhood leukemia and childhood non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  2. ** when possible, we divided the exposed group by the 50th percentile level among controls (low and high); we excluded categorizations where there were <2 exposed cases in a cell.