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Table 3 Assessment of psychological resilience indicators to disasters based on evidence across studies

From: Measuring psychological resilience to disasters: are evidence-based indicators an achievable goal?

Indicator No. studies with indicator tested No. positive effect on PR No. negative effect on PR
Social support (high) 5 5 0
Female gender 6 0 5
Exposure level (low) 5 4 0
Previous traumatic experiences 3 0 2
Resource loss (economic or psychosocial) 3 0 3
Human loss (friends or relatives) 2 0 2
Physical and mental health (poor) 4 0 4
Potential indicators, but with limited or contentious evidence
Substance abuse (marijuana) 1 0 1
Event-related worry 1 0 1
Education (high) 5 2 1
Income (high) 5 2 0
Marital status (married or partner) 5 1 0
Older age (>60-65) 6 2 1
Being religious 2 1 1
Ethnicity (minority) 2 1 2
  1. PR, psychological resilience; Positive and negative effects reported here were all statistically significant (p < 0.05).