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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population

From: Blood cadmium is elevated in iron deficient U.S. children: a cross-sectional study

  N (%)
Gender (F) 2502 (47.9%)
Age (years)  
3-5 538 (10.3%)
6-11 1429 (27.4%)
12-15 1695 (32.5%)
16-19 1562 (29.9%)
Race/ethnicity  
Mexican American 1791 (34.3%)
Other Hispanic 243 (4.7%)
Non-Hispanic Black 1582 (30.3%)
Other/Multi Racial 213 (4.1%)
Non-Hispanic White 1395 (26.7%)
Poverty Index Ratio (PIR)  
<1.00 (below poverty level) 1739 (33.3%)
1.00-1.80 (low income) 1260 (24.1%)
1.81-3.53 (middle income) 1220 (23.4%)
3.54-5.00 (high income) 1005 (19.2%)
Serum cotinine (ng/mL)  
>10 (likely smoker) 428 (8.2%)
1-10 (high SHS exposure) 714 (13.7%)
<1 (no/low SHS exposure) 4082 (78.1%)