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Table 1 Concentrations of flame retardants in dust (ng/g) on commercial airplanes in comparison to other indoor environments (n=40)

From: Exposure to flame retardant chemicals on commercial airplanes

  Airplanes (this study) Airplanes1 Homes2,3,4 Offices5
Flame retardant Sample location Pct detect Median Range Median Range GM/Median Range GM/Median Range
BDE28, 33 Floor 100% 54 (5.3 - 270) 199 (12–2800) 16 (1.6 - 120) 8 (<0.4 - 210)
Vent 95% 33 (0.8 - 140)
BDE47 Floor 100% 950 (280–17000) 4100 (0.4 - 230000) 1900 (450–17000) 700 (37–19000)
Vent 100% 3500 (230–19000)
BDE49 Floor 84% 40 (0.3 - 6300) -- -- 30 (0.3 - 3700 19 (<0.4 - 610)
Vent 68% 65 (0.4 - 790)
BDE66 Floor 100% 45 (9.0 - 1500) -- -- 17 (0.2 - 290) 9 (<0.2 - 500)
Vent 95% 230 (0.7 - 620)
BDE75 Floor 100% 370 (34–47000) -- -- 9 (1.3 - 75) 40 (<0.4 - 230)
Vent 100% 310 (27–18000)
BDE85, 155 Floor 95% 76 (11–2900) -- -- 120 (18–1100) 50 (<0.2 - 3100)
Vent 100% 200 (14–2200)
BDE99 Floor 100% 950 (330–37000) 4000 (160–290000) 2500 (330–25000) 920 (<0.4 - 33000)
Vent 100% 4200 (360–35000)
BDE100 Floor 100% 180 (43–8900) 1100 (36–180000) 440 (71–4300) 200 (13–8700)
Vent 95% 630 (45–6100)
BDE138 Floor 100% 20 (5.9 - 210) -- -- 21 (0.1 - 240) 18 (1.6 - 960)
Vent 68% 62 (0.3 - 680)
BDE153 Floor 100% 230 (65–5300) 590 (17–23000) 230 (28–2100) 140 (11–6000)
Vent 100% 630 (33–4700)
BDE154 Floor 100% 120 (33–4700) 670 (15–63000) 180 (27–2100) 120 (7.6 - 5200)
Vent 95% 280 (24–3400)
BDE183 Floor 100% 620 (200–5500) 490 (3.5 - 190000) 28 (1.7 - 230) 80 (15–13000)
Vent 100% 390 (76–9100)
BDE209 Floor 100% 495000 (210000–2100000) 22000 (440–190000) 4500 (790–180000) 4200 (910–110000)
Vent 100% 473000 (190000–2600000)
BTBPE Floor 100% 330 (30–48000) -- -- 21 (1.4 - 950) -- --
Vent 100% 1300 (160–25000)
anti-Dechlorane Plus Floor 100% 330 (92–4200) -- -- -- -- -- --
Vent 100% 300 (31–9600)
syn-Dechlorane Plus Floor 100% 110 (40–9500) -- -- -- -- -- --
Vent 100% 160 (34–2200)
HBB Floor 95% 100 (18–540) -- -- -- -- -- --
Vent 53% 45 (23–210)
α-HBCD Floor 84% 2300 (4.7 - 290000) -- -- 80 (17–1800) -- --
Vent 84% 1600 (17–32000)
β-HBCD Floor 74% 310 (1.2 - 75000) -- -- 28 (6–300) -- --
Vent 63% 230 (0.8 - 11000)
γ-HBCD Floor 100% 4500 (130–700000) -- -- 300 (79–2000) -- --
Vent 95% 7600 (99–59000)
Total HBCD Floor 100% 7600 (180–1100000) -- -- 170 (<2 - 2800) -- --
Vent 100% 10000 (370–97000)
TBB Floor 100% 350 (200–3000) -- -- 840 (<450 - 75000) -- --
Vent 100% 740 (300–5000)
TBPH Floor 100% 640 (400–1600) -- -- 650 (<300 - 47000) -- --
Vent 100% 1200 (350–3600)
TDCPP Floor 100% 2100 (580–19000) -- -- 1900 (<90 - 56000) -- --
  Vent 100% 5600 (1200–22000)       
  1. 1[18]; n=20.
  2. 2[11]; n=20.
  3. 3[8]; n=50.
  4. 4[34]; n=13 (HBCD isomers).
  5. 5[16]; n=31.