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Table 2 Characteristics of cases and controls in the main NCI-SEER non-Hodgkin lymphoma study and in analysis of residential proximity to dioxin-emitting facilities (number [percent], except where indicated)a

From: Residential proximity to industrial combustion facilities and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case–control study

  NCI-SEER NHL study Study of residential proximity to dioxin-emitting facilitiesb
  Cases (n = 1321) Controls (n = 1057) Cases (n = 969) Controls (n = 749)
NHL Subtype     
Diffuse large B-cell 417 (32)   304 (31)  
Follicular 318 (24)   227 (23)  
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic 133 (10)   102 (11)  
Marginal zone 106 (8)   82 (8)  
Other 172 (13)   128 (13)  
NOS lymphoma 175 (13)   126 (13)  
Age (years), median (IQR) 58 (48–67) 61 (50–68) 61 (50–68) 63 (53–69)
Gender     
Male 711 (54) 546 (52) 509 (53) 377 (50)
Female 610 (46) 511 (48) 460 (47) 372 (50)
Race     
Only White 1123 (85) 843 (80) 844 (87) 618 (83)
Any Black 110 (8) 151 (14) 75 (8) 99 (13)
Other/unknown 86 (7) 63 (6) 50 (5) 32 (4)
Education level, years     
<12 128 (10) 111 (11) 92 (9) 81 (11)
12-15 815 (62) 616 (58) 616 (64) 444 (59)
16+ 377 (29) 330 (31) 261 (27) 224 (30)
Study Center     
Detroit 319 (24) 214 (20) 227 (23) 161 (22)
Iowa 361 (27) 276 (26) 282 (29) 216 (29)
Los Angeles 319 (24) 273 (26) 219 (23) 172 (23)
Seattle 322 (24) 294 (28) 241 (25) 200 (27)
Occupational exposure to dioxins     
Ever worked in an industry with potential dioxin exposure 27 (2.0) 13 (1.2) 20 (2.1) 9 (1.2)
Potential sources of non-industrial exposure to dioxins     
Average population density (people per square mile), median (IQR) 4281 (1503–7107) 4233 (1339–7572) 4261 (1369–7191) 4129 (1277–7803)
Duration of living within 400m of a freight route, years; median, IQR 0.5 (0–13) 0 (0–13) 4.5 (0–15) 4.5 (0–15)
Sources of dietary exposure to dioxins c n = 464 n = 389 n = 316 n = 258
Meat, g/day, median (IQR) 140 (93–196) 130 (89–182) 133 (92–185) 129 (84–181)
Fish, g/day, median (IQR) 2.2 (0–6.5) 2.8 (0–6.5) 2.8 (0–6.5) 2.8 (0–6.5)
Saturated fat, mg/day, median (IQR) 24 (18–32) 22 (15–31) 23 (18–31) 23 (15–32)
  1. IQR interquartile range.
  2. aPercentages do not add to 100 due to missing data; 1 case in the main study was missing education information.
  3. bParticipants with ≥70% of person-years 15 years before diagnosis/reference year with verified GPS and/or geocoded street address (including street intersections).
  4. cDietary questionnaires were available for a subset of the population as indicated in the table.