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Table 2 Effect of indoor renovation exposure on groups of CHDs

From: Association between maternal exposure to housing renovation and offspring with congenital heart disease: a multi-hospital case–control study

  Indoor renovation COR (95%CI) AORa(95%CI)
Yes No
Controls 77 331 Reference Reference
Cases 101 245 1.82 (1.30, 2.56) 1.89 ** (1.29, 2.77)
CHD Groups     
  Complex malformation 23 42 2.35 (1.34, 4.15) 2.65 ** (1.38, 5.07)
  Isolated Cardiac defect 80 201 1.71 (1.20, 2.45) 1.76** (1.18, 2.64)
Subtype for isolated cardiac defect     
  Septal defect 38 113 1.45 (0.93, 2.25) 1.56 (0.93, 2.62)
  Conotruncal defect 34 102 1.43 (0.90, 2.27) 1.84 * (1.08, 3.13)
  Right-sided obstructive 18 41 1.89 (1.03, 3.46) 1.41 (0.69, 2.88)
  Left-sided obstructive 17 39 1.87 (1.01, 3.49) 1.51 (0.72, 3.17)
  Anomalous venous return 12 23 2.24 (1.07, 4.70) 2.51 * (1.12, 5.66)
  Others 15 30 2.15 (1.10, 4.19) 2.63 * (1.19, 5.80)
  1. a Variables entered were maternal age, maternal education level, place of residence (category), folate intake, ETS, factory or landfill nearby, air ventilation and hospital distribution (category).
  2. Significant differences between the mothers of case and control groups were indicated as follows: * (p < 0.05), ** (p < 0.01), (tested two-tailed).