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Table 3 Multivariate analysis of the time of housing renovations and moving-in on CHD occurrence

From: Association between maternal exposure to housing renovation and offspring with congenital heart disease: a multi-hospital case–control study

Time of moving in renovated house Interval between renovation and moving-in Controls Isolated cardiac defects P-value AORa(95%CI)
N = 408 (%) N = 281 (%)
No renovation   331 (81.1) 201 (71.5)   Reference
7-12 months before pregnancy <1 months 3 (0.7) 3 (1.1) 0.664 1.50 (0.24, 9.37)
1–3 months 3 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 0.992 0.99 (0.09, 11.04)
≥4 months 2 (0.5) 3 (1.1) 0.256 3.01 (0.45, 20.15)
4-6 months before pregnancy <1 months 3 (0.7) 6 (2.1) 0.108 3.59 (0.76, 17.04)
1–3 months 5 (1.2) 4 (1.4) 0.727 1.33 (0.27, 6.62)
≥4 months 4 (1.0) 3 (1.1) 0.659 1.42 (0.30, 6.85)
3 months before pregnancy <1 months 13 (3.2) 18 (6.4) 0.042 2.38* (1.03, 5.48)
1–3 months 8 (2.0) 8 (2.8) 0.346 1.70 (0.56, 5.16)
≥4 months 12 (2.9) 3 (1.1) 0.222 0.42 (0.10, 1.69)
first trimester <1 months 8 (2.0) 24 (8.5) 0.003 4.00** (1.62, 9.86)
1–3 months 5 (1.0) 5 (1.8) 0.532 1.54 (0.40, 5.94)
≥4 months 9 (2.2) 2 (0.7) 0.506 0.58 (0.12, 2.97)
Missing   2 (0.5) 0 (0.0)   
  1. a Variables entered were maternal age, maternal education level, place of residence (category), folate intake, ETS, factory or landfill nearby, air ventilation and hospital distribution (category).
  2. Significant differences between the mothers of case and control group were indicated as follows: * (p < 0.05), ** (p < 0.01) (tested two-tailed).