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Table 3 Associations between daily emergency hospital visits and pollution levels (lag 0–2) in single-and three pollutant models

From: Ozone is associated with cardiopulmonary and stroke emergency hospital visits in Reykjavík, Iceland 2003–2009

  O3 NO2 PM10
  % (95% CI) p % (95% CI) p % (95% CI) p
All       
Single-pollutant 3.9 (1.7-6.1) <0.01 −1.4 (−3.3-0.6) 0.17 0.1 (−0.9-1.2) 0.86
Three-pollutant 5.3 (2.5-8.1) <0.01 1.5 (−1.0-4.1) 0.24 −0.4 (−1.7-0.7) 0.45
Females       
Single-pollutant 5.7 (2.4-9.1) <0.01 −1.6 (−4.5-1.4) 0.29 0.1 (−1.5-1.8) 0.86
Three-pollutant 7.8 (3.6-12.1) <0.01 2.7 (−1.1-6.8) 0.17 −0.6 (−2.4-1.2) 0.51
Males       
Single-pollutant 2.9 (0.1-5.8) 0.04 −1.1 (−3.7-1.5) 0.39 0.1 (−1.3-1.5) 0.88
Three-pollutant 3.5 (0.1-6.9) 0.04 0.6 (−2.6-3.9) 0.73 −0.1 (−1.7-1.4) 0.86
Elderly       
Single-pollutant 3.3 (0.5-6.1) 0.02 −0.1 (−2.6-2.5) 0.96 0.0 (−1.4-1.4) 0.98
Three-pollutant 6.5 (3.0- 10.1) <0.01 3.9 (0.6-7.3) 0.02 −0.6 (−2.2-0.9) 0.43
  1. Results are given as percent (%) change in visits per interquartile range (μg/m3) increase. Models are adjusted for lag 1 of relevant visits, day-of-week and odd holidays, lag 02 temperature and relative humidity, and time trend with a cubic-penalized spline. Interquartile range of lag 02 variables: O3: 17.21 μg/m3, NO2: 12.93 μg/m3, PM10: 11.05 μg/m3.