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Table 1 Commute variables for routes of high (HIGH) and low (LOW) proximity to motorised traffic; direction

From: Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

Condition HIGH LOW
Inbound Outbound Inbound Outbound
Time (24:00) 8:20 ± 0:22 16:39 ± 0:23 8:04 ± 0:22 16:33 ± 0:23
Distance (km) 12.3 ± 6.9 11.7 ± 6.9 12.9 ± 7.2 12.6 ± 7.0
Duration (min) 42 ± 18 41 ± 15 45 ± 17 43 ± 16
Speed (km·hr-1) 17.3 ± 4.3 16.7 ± 4.8 17.1 ± 4.6 17.1 ± 4.7
Heart Rate (bpm) 137 ± 11 135 ± 11 134 ± 9 131 ± 9
Temperature (ºC) 17.9 ± 3.5 21.1 ± 3.0## 17.7 ± 3.5 21.5 ± 3.2##
Humidity (%) 61 ± 14 48 ± 19## 62 ± 13 49 ± 19##
Wind Speed (km·hr-1) 5.8 ± 3.2 9.5 ± 4.8 7.1 ± 3.2 8.5 ± 4.4
Air Pressure (hPa) 1019 ± 6 1016 ± 5 1019 ± 6 1016 ± 5
PNC Mean ( x e4; ppcc) 3.30 ± 1.57 2.60 ± 1.35## 1.99 ± 1.02** 1.84 ± 0.84**
PNC Median ( x e4; ppcc) 2.20 ± 1.02 1.77 ± 1.08 1.34 ± 0.79** 1.38 ± 0.67**
PD Median (nm) 49 ± 10 47 ± 8 52 ± 11 50 ± 11
  1. Values are means (or median where indicated) ± standard deviation. Significance [from multivariate repeated measure ANOVA]: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 compared to HIGH; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 compared to Inbound. PNC (ppcc) = particle number concentration (particles per cubic centimetre), PD = particle diameter.