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Table 2 Symptom and peak flow variables for routes of high (HIGH) and low (LOW) proximity to motorised traffic; direction and time

From: Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

Condition HIGH LOW
Inbound Outbound Inbound Outbound
Pre In Post Pre In Post Pre In Post Pre In Post
Offensive Odour 1.09 ± 0.12 2.71*,## ± 0.73 1.21 ± 0.15 1.12 ± 0.13 2.88*,## ± 0.83 1.06 ± 0.11 1.18 ± 0.13 2.06## ± 0.42 1.09 ± 0.15 1.18 ± 0.14 2.18## ± 0.48 1.09 ± 0.11
Dust, Soot 1.06 ± 0.11 2.35*,## ± 0.55 1.06 ± 0.11 1.06 ± 0.11 2.21*,## ± 0.49 1.03 ± 0.12 1.18 ± 0.14 1.65# ± 0.27 1.06 ± 0.11 1.15 ± 0.13 1.65*,## ± 0.27 1.09 ± 0.21
Eye Irritation 1.06 ± 0.11 1.56 ± 0.24 1.06 ± 0.11 1.18 ± 0.14 1.65 ± 0.27 1.06 ± 0.10 1.18 ± 0.10 1.26 ± 0.16 1.09 ± 0.12 1.18 ± 0.14 1.35 ± 0.18 1.06 ± 0.12
Nose Irritation 1.38 ± 0.19 1.82** ± 0.33 1.24 ± 0.15 1.24 ± 0.16 1.74 ± 0.30 1.12 ± 0.13 1.24 ± 0.15 1.53 ± 0.23 1.12 ± 0.13 1.09 ± 0.12 1.38 ± 0.19 1.12 ± 0.13
Throat Irritation 1.56 ± 0.24 2.00** ± 0.40 1.41 ± 0.19 1.35 ± 0.18 2.09 ± 0.44 1.26 ± 0.16 1.38 ± 0.19 1.56 ± 0.24 1.26 ± 0.16 1.24 ± 0.15 1.56 ± 0.25 1.35 ± 0.18
Cough 1.32 ± 0.17 1.62 ± 0.26 1.32 ± 0.17 1.18 ± 0.14 1.71 ± 0.29 1.41 ± 0.20 1.29 ± 0.17 1.26 ± 0.16 1.26 ± 0.20 1.24 ± 0.16 1.35 ± 0.19 1.24 ± 0.15
Phlegm 1.26 ± 0.16 1.97 ± 0.38 1.26 ± 0.16 1.18 ± 0.15 1.94 ± 0.38 1.35 ± 0.18 1.47 ± 0.22 1.74 ± 0.30 1.21 ± 0.15 1.29 ± 0.17 1.76 ± 0.31 1.24 ± 0.13
Chest Tightness 1.12 ± 0.13 1.35 ± 0.18 1.09 ± 0.12 1.09 ± 0.13 1.47 ± 0.22 1.12 ± 0.13 1.09 ± 0.12 1.12 ± 0.13 1.12 ± 0.11 1.12 ± 0.13 1.15 ± 0.13 1.12 ± 0.13
Chest Wheeze 1.03 ± 0.11 1.24 ± 0.15 1.09 ± 0.12 1.06 ± 0.11 1.26 ± 0.16 1.15 ± 0.13 1.09 ± 0.13 1.09 ± 0.12 1.09 ± 0.13 1.06 ± 0.11 1.15 ± 0.11 1.09 ± 0.19
Headache 1.09 ± 0.12 1.21 ± 0.16 1.12 ± 0.13 1.12 ± 0.14 1.29 ± 0.17 1.09 ± 0.12 1.18 ± 0.14 1.09 ± 0.13 1.12 ± 0.16 1.18 ± 0.14 1.18 ± 0.14 1.03 ± 0.11
PFR (%Δ) 0.00 ± 0.00 1.28 ± 0.16 1.18 ± 0.14 0.00 ± 0.00 1.65 ± 0.27 1.63 ± 0.27 0.00 ± 0.00 1.76 ± 0.31 1.41 ± 0.20 0.00 ± 0.00 2.38 ± 0.57 2.14 ± 0.46
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation. Significance [from linear mixed models]: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 compared to LOW; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 compared to Pre. Direction is the return component of bicycle commute trip performance: Inbound = morning, ingress of CBD; Outbound = afternoon, egress of CBD. Time is the period relative to bicycle commute trip performance: Pre = immediately pre-commute; In = immediately-post-commute; Post = three hours post-commute. PFR = Peak flow rate. Values are given as mean, on a scale of incidence from 1 (very low) to 5 (very high). PFR is expressed as the percentage change from Pre values.