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Table 3 Total and differential cell counts for routes of high (HIGH) and low (LOW) proximity to motorised traffic; direction and time

From: Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

Condition HIGH LOW
Inbound Outbound Inbound Outbound
Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Leukocyte (x e6 cells·mL-1) 1.36 ± 0.42 1.38 ± 0.43 1.23 ± 0.38 1.28 ± 0.39 1.40 ± 0.43 1.37 ± 0.42 1.44 ± 0.45 1.44 ± 0.45
Epithelial (x e6 cells·mL-1) 1.16 ± 0.30 1.19 ± 0.31 1.05 ± 0.27 1.10 ± 0.28 1.20 ± 0.31 1.17 ± 0.30 1.23 ± 0.32 1.23 ± 0.30
Columnar (x e6 cells·mL-1) 0.58 ± 0.18 0.59 ± 0.18 0.53 ± 0.16 0.55 ± 0.17 0.60 ± 0.19 0.59 ± 0.15 0.62 ± 0.22 0.62 ± 0.21
Squamous (x e6 cells·mL-1) 0.78 ± 0.30 0.79 ± 0.31 0.70 ± 0.27 0.73 ± 0.28 0.80 ± 0.31 0.78 ± 0.20 0.82 ± 0.29 0.82 ± 0.30
Macrophage (%) 59 ± 18 58 ± 18 59 ± 18 59 ± 18 59 ± 18 59 ± 20 58 ± 17 59 ± 18
Lymphocyte (%) 1.4 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.5 0.8 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.5 1.0 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.4
Neutrophil (%) 39 ± 12 40 ± 12 40 ± 12 40 ± 12 40 ± 12 39 ± 10 41 ± 11 40 ± 11
Eosinophil (%) 0.6 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.2 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation. Significance [from linear mixed models]: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 compared to LOW, #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 compared to Pre. Total cell count values are presented as number of cells per mL of spontaneous sputum sample. Differential cell count values are presented as percentage of the total leukocyte cell count. Direction is the return component of bicycle commute trip performance: Inbound = morning, ingress of CBD; Outbound = afternoon, egress of CBD. Time point is relative to bicycle commute trip performance: Pre = immediately pre-commute; Post = three hours post-commute.